July in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Ἰούλιος. July
βʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ κεφαλῆς τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῶν Διδύμων ἐπιτέλλει. 2. The region next to the head of the leading part of Gemini rises.
θʹ. Κηφεὺς ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 9.  Cepheus rises : weather change.
ιαʹ. Ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς καρδίας τοῦ Λέοντος κρύπτεται. 11. The region next to the heart of Leo is absent from the sky.
ιδʹ. Ὠρίων τελείως ἀνατέλλει ἅμα ἡλίῳ καὶ ποιεῖ ὕδατα καὶ ἀνέμους. 14. Orion rises completely at the same time as the sun, and causes rain and winds.
ιθʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ κατʹ Αἰγυπτίους. 19. Sirius rising according to the Egyptians.
καʹ. Ὑδροχόος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 21.  Aquarius sets : weather change.
κεʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ ἐν τῷ δʹ κλίματι. 25.  Sirius rising in the 4th clima [1].
κζʹ. Ἡ Λύρα δύνει. 27.  The Lyre sets.
κθʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ ἐν τῶ ϛ̕ κλίματι. 29.  Sirius rising in the 6th clima.

1. There are seven astrological zones.

June in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Ἰούνιος. June
αʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῶν Ὑάδων ἐπιτέλλει καὶ Ἀετὸς ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 1.  The radiance of the Hyades rises and the Eagle arises : weather change.
ϛ̕. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς<…> τῶν Διδύμων λαμπρὸς κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 6.  The region next to the head <…> the radiance of Gemini is absent from the sky : weather change.
ιγʹ. Ὠρίων ἄρχεται ἐπιτέλλων · καὶ ποιεῖ κλόνους καὶ ταραχὰς βροντῶν. 13. Orion begins rising : and makes thunderous shakings and disorders.
καʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὑδροχόου κρύπτεταὶ. 21.  The radiance of Aquarius is absent from the sky.
κδʹ. τροπὴ θερινή. 24.  The summer solstice.
κεʹ. Ὠρίωνος Ζώνη ἐπιτέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 25.  The belt of Orion rises : weather change.

More on the “birth of the sun” at Chronicon blog

Tom Schmidt is still excerpting material from ancient sources on this mysterious “birth of the sun” on 25 Dec.  And he’s translating some untranslated material himself!  He’s got a bit from Hephaistio of Thebes on Antiochus of Athens.  Read it here.

May in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Μάϊος. May
αʹ. Ὑάδων ἐπιτολή · ἐπισημασία. 1.  The rising of the Hyades : weather change.
βʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς Λύρας ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 2.  The radiance of the Lyre arises in the west : weather change.
δʹ. Αἲξ ἑσπερία δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 3.  The Goat sets in the west : weather change.
θʹ. Πλειάδες ἀνατέλλουσιν ἅμα ἡλίὤ ·  ἐπισημασία. 9.  The Pleiades rise at the same time as the sun : weather change.
ιαʹ. ὁ τοῦ ἡγουμένου ὤμου τοῦ Ὠρίωνος κρύπτεται. 11.  The leading shoulder of Orion is absent from the sky.
ιγʹ. ὁ Κύων κρύπτεται καὶ ὁ ἐν τῷ δεξιῷ βραχίονι τοῦ Κενταῦρου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 13.  Sirius is absent from the sky and rises in the right arm of the Centaur in the west.
ιζʹ. Ἀντάρης ἑῷος δύνει. 17.  Antares sets in the east.
ιηʹ. Αἲξ ἑσπερία ἀνατέλλει. 18.  The Goat arises in the west.
καʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος ἑῷος δύνει ·  ἐπισημασία. 21.  Arcturus sets in the east :  weather change.
κγʹ. Ὑάδες καὶ Ἀετὸς ἀνατέλλουσιν · ἐπισημασία ἐν ἡμέραις ἑπτά. 23.  The Hyades and the Eagle arise : weather change in seven days time.
κεʹ. παχνίτου ἔκβασις. 25.  End of Pachnite.
κηʹ. Προκύων κρύπτεται καὶ ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ἀετοῦ ἑσπερ́ριος ἀνατέλλει. 28.  Procyon is absent from the sky and the radiance of the Eagle arises in the west.
λαʹ. Πλειάδων ἐπιτολή. 31.  The rising of the Pleiades.

April in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

The second century astrologer continues:

Μὴν Ἀπρίλλιος. April
αʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς νοτίας χηλῆς τοῦ Σκορπίου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει καὶ Πλειάδες κρύπτονται · ἐμισημασια. 1.  The radiance of the southern claw of Scorpio arises in the west, and  the Pleiades are absent from the sky.
εʹ. Πλειάδες τελείως κρύπτονται · ἐμισημασια. 5.  The pleiades are completely absent from the sky : weather change.
ιʹ. ὕψωμα ἡλίου. 10.  The lifting-high of the sun.[1]
ιδʹ. Κάνωβος κρύπτεται. 14.  Canopus is absent from the sky.
κʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Περσέως δύνει. 20.  The radiance of Perseus sets.
κβʹ. ἀρχὴ παχνίτου. 22.  Beginning of Pachnite.[2]
κηʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ  ἡγουμένου ποδὸς τοῦ Ὠρίωνος καὶ ὁ μέσος τῆς Ζώνης κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 28.  From the leading foot to the middle of the belt of Orion is absent from the sky : weather change.
λʹ. Κύων κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 30.  Sirius is absent from the sky : weather change.

1. Boll’s note indicates that the sun would be high in some constellation — in Aries, in this case.  He adds: “Since the equinox is given on 22nd March, the hupsoma takes place 20 days later, on the 10th April.  This addition is found in none of the other calendars.”
2. The word is found in no lexicon, so Boll tells us, but seems to be a month in some calendar, as it ends on the entry for 25 May, 33 days later.  Possibly it relates to Pharmuthi?

March in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Here’s the next chunk of the astrological calendar of Antiochus of Athens.

Μὴν Μάρτιος March
αʹ. ὁ κοινὸς Ἵππου καὶ Ἀνδρομέδας ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 1. The common region of the Horse and Andromeda arises in the west.
γʹ. ὁ ἔσχατος τοῦ Ποταμοῦ <…> καὶ Ἰχθὺς νότιος ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 3. The end of the River <…> and the Fish arises in the south : weather change.
εʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 5. Arcturus arises : weather change.
ιαʹ.  Ἵππος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 11. The Horse sets : weather change.
ιβʹ. ὁ Στάχυς ἑσπέριος ἐνατέλλει. 12. Spica Virginis [1] arises in the west.
ιδʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς τοῦ Λέοντος ἑῷος δύνει. 14. The region next to the tail of Leo sets in the east.
ιϛ̕. Ὑάδες ἀνατέλλουσιν · ἐπισημασία. 16. The Hyades rise : weather change.
κβʹ. ἰσημερία ἐαρινή. 22. Spring equinox.
κζʹ. ὁ Στάχυς ἑῷος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 27.  Spica Virginis sets in the east : weather change.
λʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Περσέως ἑῷος δύνει. 30.  The radiance of Perseus sets in the east.

1. I learn from Liddle and Scott that Stachys is the “name of the chief star in the constellation Virgo, Spica Virginis, Arat. 97, Ptol. Alm. 7.5 : in pl., Man. 2.134 .”

February in the Calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Here’s the next portion of the calendar.
Μὴν Φεβρουάριος. February
αʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς καρδίας τοῦ Λέοντος ἑῷος δύνει. 1. The region over the heart of Leo sets in the east.
δʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς Λύρας ἑσπέριος δύνει · ἐπισημασία ἀκινδυνος. 4. The radiance of the Lyre sets in the west: harmless weather change.
ϛ̕. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὄρνιθος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 6. The radiance of the Bird arises in the west.
ιγʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ δεξιοῦ Βραχίονος τοῦ Κενταύρου ἑῷος δύνει. 13.  The right arm of the Centaur sets in the east.
ιθʹ. ἡ Παρθένος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 19.  Virgo sets: weather change.
κγʹ. ὁ κοινὸς τοῦ Ἵππου καὶ τῆς Ἀνδρομέδας κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 23.  The overlap between the Horse and Andromeda is hidden: weather change.
κεʹ. ὁ ἔσχατος τοῦ Ποταμοῦ < … > καὶ Ἰχθὺς νότιος ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 25.  The final bit of the River <…> and the Fish arises in the south: weather change.
κζʹ. ὁ Ἀρκτοῦρος ἄρχεται ἀνατέλλων · ἐπισημασία. 27.  Arcturus begins to rise: weather change.

A translation of January in Antiochus’ Calendar

Μὴν Ἰαννουάριος. January
αʹ.   Ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῶν Διδύμων ἑῷος δύνει. 1st. The head and leg of Gemini set in the east.
εʹ.  Δελφὶς ἐπιτέλλει. 5th. The Dolphin rises.
ζʹ.  ὁ κατὰ τοῦ γονατος τοῦ Τοζότου ἐπιτέλλει. 7th.  The portion of Sagittarius above the knee rises.
ιαʹ.  ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς Λύρας ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει· καὶ ποιεῖ ἐπισημασίαν ἀκίνδυνον.  11th.  The radiance of the Lyre arises in the west: and causes harmless changes to the weather.
ιεʹ.  ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὑδροχόου ἑῷος δύνει. 15th.  The radiance of Arcturus sinks in the east.
ιηʹ.  ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ Λέοντος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 18th.  The head-portion of Leo rises in the west.
κβʹ.  ὁ Ὑδροχόος ἀνατέλλει· ἐπισημασία. 22nd.  Aquarius rises: weather change.
κϛʹ . ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ στήθους τοῦ Λέοντος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 26th.  The breast of Leo sets: weather change.
λαʹ.  ὁ Κάνωβος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 31st.  Canopus arises in the west.

That’s my first effort at translating some Greek.  Corrections very welcome!

More on the calendar of Antiochus

I’ve been looking at the portion of the calendar of Antiochus of Athens which I posted earlier, and trying to work out what the meanings of the words are.  I can feel the jargon behind some otherwise innocuous phrases, and Mark Riley’s glossary of terms confirms that at least one of them does have a specialised meaning in ancient astrological circles.

To start with, I need to be sure what two very common words mean, namely:  Περὶ ἀστων νατελλντων καδυντων — concerning the rising and setting of the stars.  That is, I think it is “rising” and “setting”, but I want to be sure.

I thought I’d do a google search on  νατελλντων and δυντων and see what I  got.  After a few Greek pages, I got an ancient work, Geminus Rhodius, Introduction to the Phaenomena.  Apparently this is a work of the 1st century B.C.  The HTML is here.  The Wikipedia article for Geminus Rhodius tells me that an English translation does exist, but, made recently as it was, it’s offline and so inaccessible to anyone.  But this site has a PDF of a Greek/German text.  I’m OCR’ing this at the moment, and it may help.  Chapter 2, in which the text is used, is about the 12 parts of the zodiac.

The HTML gives me this:

Ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς συζυγίας διημαρτημένας εἶναι συμβέβηκεν. Ἐκδηλότατον δὲ γίνεται τὸ ἁμάρτημα περὶ τὴν συζυγίαν τοῦ Κριοῦ. Ἀποφαίνονται γὰρ κατὰ συζυγίαν Κριὸν Ζυγῷ ὡς τούτων τῶν ζῳδίων ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ τόπου ἀνατελλόντων καὶ εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν τόπον δυνόντων. Ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν Κριὸς βόρειος ἀνατέλλει καὶ δύνει· τοῦ γὰρ ἰσημερινοῦ κύκλου πρὸς ἄρκτους κεῖται· αἱ δὲ Ζυγοῦ νότιαι καὶ ἀνατέλλουσι καὶ δύνουσι· τοῦ γὰρ ἰσημερινοῦ κύκλου πρὸς μεσημβρίαν κεῖνται. Πῶς οὖν δύναται Κριὸς Ζυγῷ κατὰ συζυγίαν εἶναι; Ἐκ διαφόρων γὰρ τόπων ἀνατέλλουσιν, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ δύνουσιν.

and the German is (chapter II, nearly at the end, on p.35):

Am deutlichsten zeigt sich die irrtumliche Annahme bei  dem Paarscheine des Widders. Den Widder nehmen sie namlich als mit der Wage im Paarschein stehend an, da diese Zeichen angeblich aus demselben Orte auf- und in denselben Ort untergehen. Allein der Widder geht nördlich auf und unter, weil er nördlich vom Äquator liegt, wahrend die Wage sildlich aufgeht und untergeht, weil sie südlich vom Äquator liegt. Wie kann also der Widder mit der Wage in Paarschein stehen? Gehen sie ja doch aus verschiedenen Orten auf und auch entsprechend unter. Es können also diese Zeichen nicht von denselben Parallelkreisen eingeschlossen werden.

Again we have rising and setting.

Next I try a search for dunei.  I get a parallel Greek-English Septuagint from Ecclesiastes 1:5, here.

καὶ ἀνατέλλει ὁ ἥλιος καὶ δύνει ὁ ἥλιος καὶ εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτοῦ ἕλκει

The sun also rises, and the sun goes down, and hurries to its place where it rises. 

OK, that fits with my understanding also.

I then found an article online which not merely uses the word, but references the calendar of Euctemon — one of the other three calendars published by Boll together with that of Antiochus!  — Pritchett (etc), Thucididean time-reckoning and Euctemon’s seasonal calendar, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique , vol 85 (1961) pp. 17-52. It starts here.  I learn from it, indeed, that Euctemon’s calendar actually is appended to the manuscripts of Geminus Rhodius!  And Pritchett actually translates a portion of Euctemon, from which we may see some of the terminology in use:

And indeed there are several more pages of translation.

I had already worked out that Kwon — so frequent in Antiochus — must be Sirius, the dog-star, but it is nice to get confirmation of it.  epitellei = rises and holos epitellei = completely rises are likewise useful.  Delphis, it seems, is the “Dolphin”.  Pritchett renders hesperios as “vespertinal” (what?!), i.e. “in the west”.

So this has been productive.  I now have some ideas about the language being used by Antiochus.

The opening section of the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

I’ve transcribed the Greek into unicode.  Who knows, it might even display correctly here!   The first three lines are the heading, in each of three different manuscripts.

Περὶ ἀστων νατελλντων καδυντων ν τος ιβʹ μηστοῦ ἐνιαυτοσν τῷ ἡλίῳ.   Ἀντιχου Ο περὶ ἀστρων νατελλντων καδυνν των ν τος ιβʹ μηστοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ. (Concerning the rising and setting of the stars in the 12 months of the year, with the sun).

Ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ κατὰ τοὺς μῆνας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἀνατέλλοντες καὶ δύνοντες οὗτοι  (But also the risings and settings in the months of the year)

Εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ τὰ ἀνατέλλοντα ἄστρα σὺν τῷ ἡλίῳ ἐν ἑκάστῳ μηνὶ ταῦτα. (This is also the star risings with the sun in each of the months).

Μὴν Ἰαννουάριος.

αʹ.   Ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῶν Διδύμων ἑῷος δύνει.
εʹ.  Δελφὶς ἐπιτέλλει.
ζʹ.  ὁ κατὰ τοῦ γονατος τοῦ Τοζότου ἐπιτέλλει.
ιαʹ.  ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς Λύρας ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει· καὶ ποιεῖ ἐπισημασίαν ἀκίνδυνον.
ιεʹ.  ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὑδροχόου ἑῷος δύνει.
ιηʹ.  ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ Λέοντος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει.
κβʹ.  ὁ Ὑδροχόος ἀνατέλλει· ἐπισημασία.
κϛʹ . ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ στήθους τοῦ Λέοντος δύνει · ἐπισημασία.
λαʹ.  ὁ Κάνωβος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει.