Marutha (d. 649) was the monophysite bishop of Takrit, and the Maphrian (organiser) of the monophysites (Jacobites) in Persia.
Among the Syriac writers of the 7th century, the name of Marutha 1 is the first that deserves mention, more, however, on account of his ecclesiastical weight and position than his literary merit. He was a native of Shurzak (?), a village in the diocese of Beth Nuhadhre 2, was ordained priest in the convent of Nardus, lived for twenty years in the convent of Zakkai or Zacchaeus at Callinicus (ar-Rakkah), and went thence to Edessa for purposes of study. On returning to the East, he resided in the convent of Mar Matthew at Mosul, where he occupied himself with remodelling its rules and orders. He sided with the Mono-physite party at the Persian court, and, after the death of the physician Gabriel 3, found it advisable to retire to 'Akola (al-Kufah) 4. He was elevated to the dignity of metropolitan bishop of Taghrith in 640, after the establishment of peace between the Greeks and Persians 5, and was the first real maphrian (maphreyana) and organizer of the Jacobite Church in the East, which so rapidly increased in numbers and influence that he was called upon to ordain bishops for such remote regions as Segestan (Sistan) and Harew (Herat). Marutha died in 649. His life was written by his successor Denha 6.
Marutha compiled a liturgy and wrote a commentary on the Gospels, both of which are sometimes wrongly assigned to the elder Marutha of Maiperkat 7. He was also the author of short discourses on New (or Low) Sunday, and on the consecration of the water on the eve of the Epiphany, as well as of some hymns and sedras 8.
Some 13th century manuscripts containing Marutha's works survive. From a homily in one of these, BL Add. 14727, it appears that Marutha used an Old Syriac gospel text 9.
- B.O.,ii. 416, 418.
- See Hoffmann, Auszuge, pp. 208-216, but especially p. 215.
- See above, p. 126.
- Bar-Hebraeus, Chron. Eccles., ii. 111; B.O., ii. 416.
- The circumstances are given in detail by Bar-Hebraeus, (Chron. Eccles., ii. 119 sq.) and Assemani (B.O., ii. 419).
- See Brit. Mus. Add. 14645, f. 198 a (Wright, Catal., p. 1113).
- See above, p. 46. From the commentary are taken the passages quoted in the Catena of Severus. See Assemani, Catal., iii. 11 (on Exod. xv. 25), 24, and Wright, Catal., p. 910.
- See Brit. Mus. Add. 14727, f. 140a; 17267, f. 17b; 17254, f. 164 a; 17128, f. 91b.
- 'Studies of the History of the Gospel Text in Syriac', Vööbus, A. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium: Subsidia, Tome 3, Louvain 1951 (volume 1) and 1987 (volume 2)
- "The canons ascribed to Maruta of Maipherqat and related sources", Arthur Vööbus [ed. and tr]. CSCO vol.431-440, Scriptores Syri t.191-192. Lovanii:E. Peeters (1982). 2 vols (160/145pp), Syriac text, English translation. ISBN 2801701955 (v.1); ISBN 2801701963 (v.2) (ascribed to Saint Maruta, Bishop of Maipherkat, 5th cent)
- F. Nau, F. 'Denha, histoire de Marouta', PO III, 1 Paris (1905).
- Codex Vatican. Syriac. 161 Brief description: "4o parchment codex containing 216 folios and of early date ("pervetustus"). This manuscript was originally part of the forty-five Syriac manuscripts that formed the personal collection of J. S. Assemani. The collection was acquired by Assemani during a voyage to the East (1715-17) which was undertaken at the request of Pope Clement XI (1700-21). The volume contains two sermons on the Persian martyrs attributed to Marutha, Maphrian of Takrit (d. 649), and a large collection of martyrdoms."