“His blood be upon us”: The use of Mt.27:25 and Acts 4:10 in patristic writers

An email from a correspondent reached me earlier this week, asking an interesting question:

Lately I’ve been tackling arguments that passages like Matt. 27:25 (“his blood be on us…”) were a huge influence on later anti-Semitism. …  The key issue being: Just how influential were passages like Matthew 27:25, and Acts 4:10 (“Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole.”) when it came to inspiring anti-Semitic sentiments among later writers?

If the question is being agitated, for whatever reason, then the first thing to do is to establish the facts.  A Google search on “Christ killer” – which is a term supposedly used by Christians about Jews – reveals copious invective but a remarkable lack of actual patristic data.

Books can be (and have been) written on the general relation of the early Church to the Jews, and it would be too big a subject for an article.  But a list of the places where these two verses specifically are used seemed like a useful thing to attempt.

Note that I am indebted to the marvellous BiblIndex site, where I performed a search on these two verses, to determine the references.  I also used the TLG, and the CETEDOC database for Latin.  The search contains hieroglyphics, not all of which I can identify.  SL = Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, PL = Patrologia Latina, CPL = Clavis Patrum Latinorum.

Naturally context is everything, and quotations can distort.  But I thought that it is worth recording what sort of impression I received.

The first impression is that the early Christians were not, in the main, concerned with attitudes to Jews.  The translation of the Ante-Nicene Fathers fills 5,000 large double-column pages, without including the homilies of Origen; the post-Nicene fathers probably ten times as much.  So these quotations are an infinitesimally tiny portion of their work.  The Fathers were concerned with  their own identity as Christians, and how to understand the Old Testament, and relate it to themselves.  They were not concerned with demonising Jews, by race or religion, so much as with connecting themselves with OT prophecy.  Since, prior to 313 AD, they held no political power, any such attitudes would have meant nothing anyway.

We must never forget that the history of Israel in the Old Testament is that of the people with whom God is dealing, and the church does not reject the OT, but accepts it.  The sins and failings of Israel are a theme that any exegesis must deal with; and “Israel” in this context also means the church,  rather than an alien racial/religious group.

But while this approach persists, and is still found copiously in the post-Nicene commentaries, a pronounced hostility to Jews as Jews does start to appear, after the legalisation of the church, particularly towards the end of the 4th century.  It is clearest in Chrysostom’s Adversus Judaeos, where the tone is a bitter one.  Any reader of ecclesiastical histories will know that the same tone also appears towards heretical groups, together with an eagerness to identify opponents as “heretics” in order to demonise, marginalise, and extirpate.  Hate is becoming good politics; and expressing it has become a way to signal the speaker’s own virtue against those awful other people.   This evil habit of the Byzantine period begins during this time.

Much the most interesting reference is one in ps.Cyprian, which reveals that, rather than Christians taunting Jews as Christ-killers,  some Jewish polemicists were not above taunting the Christians with the fact that the Jews had put the god of the Christians to death!  Tertullian in his Apologeticum also records a debauched Jew parading wearing the head of a donkey, as an anti-Christian act.  No doubt while Christianity was illegal, and Judaism was not, such incidents did take place.  Once Christianity was legal, and favoured by emperor after emperor, the boot was on the other foot.

Here are the references, with the text of the passage in English.  Contributions are welcome!

Mt 27:25:

Ante-Nicene Writers:

  • Melito, De Pascha. [1]  (Not in BiblIndex, curiously)

80. … you sang songs, but he was judged; you issued the command, he was crucified; you danced, he was buried; you lay down on a soft bed, but he in a tomb and coffin.  81. O lawless Israel, why did you commit this extraordinary crime of casting your Lord into new sufferings–your master, the one who formed you, the one who made you, the one who honored you, the one who called you Israel?

  • Tertullian, Aduersus Iudaeos (Against the Jews),  8:18. [2]

… in the Psalms it is prophesied, “They exterminated my hands and feet.” [18] And the suffering of this “extermination” was perfected within the times of the LXX hebdomads, under Tiberius Caesar, in the consulate of Rubellius Geminus and Fufius Geminus, in the month of March, at the times of the passover, on the eighth day before the calends of April, on the first day of unleavened bread, on which they slew the lamb at even, just as had been enjoined by Moses.  Accordingly, all the synagogue of Israel did slay Him, saying to Pilate, when he was desirous to dismiss Him, “His blood be upon us, and upon our children;” and, “If thou dismiss him, thou art not a friend of Caesar; ” in order that all things might be fulfilled which had been written of Him.

  • Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem (Against Marcion), II. 15.[3]

… if the fathers’ blessing was also to be passed on to their seed, without any previous merit of theirs, why should not the fathers’ guilt also overflow upon their sons? … yet without prejudice to that decree which was afterwards to be made … that the father would not take upon him the son’s sin, nor the son his father’s sin, but that everyone would bear the guilt of his own sin: and thus, after Israel’s hardness, the hardness of the law might also be subdued, and justice no longer judge the nation but individuals. And yet, if you were to accept the gospel in its true form, you would learn to whom applies this judgement of God who turns the fathers’ sins back upon their children, namely to those who were, at a time then future, going of their own will to call down this judgement upon themselves, His blood be on our heads and on our children’s. So then God’s foresight in its fullness passed censure upon this which he  heard long before it was spoken.

  • Cyprian (pseudo), Aduersus Iudaeos (Against the Jews). [4]  Note that Cyprian, Ad Quirinum (Three books of testimonies against the Jews) (here) does not seem to make use of Matt. 27:25 at all.

1. Now, then, incline your ear to me, and hear my words, and give heed, you Jew. Many a time do you boast yourself, in that you condemned Jesus of Nazareth to death, and gave Him vinegar and gall to drink; and you vaunt yourself because of this. Come therefore, and let us consider together whether perchance you do not boast unrighteously, O Israel, (and) whether that small portion of vinegar and gall has not brought down this fearful threatening upon you, (and) whether this is not the cause of your present condition involved in these myriad troubles.  2. Let him then be introduced before us who speaks by the Holy Spirit, and says truth— David the son of Jesse. He, singing a certain strain with prophetic reference to the true Christ, celebrated our God by the Holy Spirit, (and) declared clearly all that befell Him by the hands of the Jews in His passion; …

  • Origen (tr. Rufinus), In Iesu Naue homiliae XXVI (Homilies on Joshua)(CPL 0198 L (A)).  Eng. translation in FOC 105.

Homily 3, ch.5.  FOC p.49.[5]  She herself puts the scarlet-colored sign in her house, through which she is bound to be saved from the destruction of the city. No other sign would have been accepted, except the scarlet-colored one that carried the sign of blood. For she knew there was no salvation for anyone except in the blood of Christ.

 Also this commandment is given to the person who was once a prostitute: “All,” it says, “who will be found in your house will be saved. But concerning those who go out from the house, we ourselves are free of them by your oath.” Therefore, if anyone wants to be saved, let him come into the house of this one who was once a prostitute. Even if anyone from that people wants to be saved, let him come in order to be able to attain salvation. Let him come to this house in which the blood of Christ is the sign of redemption. For among those who said, “His blood be upon us and upon our children,” the blood of Christ is for condemnation. For Jesus had been appointed “for the ruin and the resurrection of many.” Therefore, for those refuting his sign, his blood effects punishment; for those who believe, salvation.

 Let no one persuade himself, let no one deceive himself. Outside this house, that is, outside the Church, no one is saved. If anyone goes outside, he is responsible for his own death. This is the significance of the blood, for this is also the purification that is manifest through the blood.

Homily 26.  chapter 3.  FOC 105, p. 219.  here  [6]  But to prove these things I wish to make mention also of a certain story, so that, if only the Lord deigns to grant, we may be able to discover the spiritual explanation of it. Once the people fell down in the desert and died. Aaron the chief priest came and “stood in the midst of those who died and of those who lived,” so that the devastation of death might not advance even further among the rest And then came the true high priest, my Lord, and he came into the midst between those dying and the living. That is, he came between those Jews who accepted his presence and those who not only did not accept but killed themselves more completely than him, saying, “The blood of that one be upon us and upon our sons!” Whence also “all the righteous blood that has been poured forth upon the earth from the blood of the righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah whom they killed between the sanctuary and the altar will be required from that generation” that said, “His blood be upon us and upon our sons.”

  • Origen, Commentary on Matthew. Two passages: Book 14, ch. 19. Not in Biblindex. [7] Also in the Commentariorum series, section 124, which is a Latin version of some lost later book in the same work.[8]

XIV. 19.  … Now, He who is the Christ may have taken the synagogue to wife and cohabited with her, but it may be that afterwards she found not favour in His sight; and the reason of her not having found favour in His sight was, that there was found in her an unseemly thing; for what was more unseemly than the Circumstance that, when it was proposed to them to release one at the feast, they asked for the release of Barabbas the robber, and the condemnation of Jesus? And what was more unseemly than the fact, that they all said in His case, “Crucify Him, crucify Him,” and “Away with such a fellow from the earth”? And can this be freed from the charge of unseemliness, “His blood be upon us, and upon our children”? Wherefore, when He was avenged, Jerusalem was compassed with armies, and its desolation was near, and their house was taken away from it, and “the daughter of Zion was left as a booth in a vineyard, and as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, and as a besieged city.” And, about the same time, I think, the husband wrote out a bill of divorcement to his former wife, and gave it into her hands, and sent her away from his own house, and the bond of her who came from the Gentiles has been cancelled about which the Apostle Says, “Having blotted out the bond written in ordinances, which was contrary to us, and He hath taken it out of the way, nailing it to the cross; ” for Paul also and others became proselytes of Israel for her who came from the Gentiles. The first wife, accordingly, not having found favour before her husband, because in her had been found an unseemly thing, went out from the dwelling of her husband, and, going away, has become joined to another man, to whom she has subjected herself, whether we should call the husband Barabbas the robber, who is figuratively the devil, or some evil power. And in the case of some of that synagogue there has happened the former thing which was written in the law, but in the case of others, that which was second. For the last husband hated his wife and will write out for her some day at the consummation of things a bill of divorcement, when God so orders it, and will give it into her hands and will send her away from his dwelling; for as the good God will put enmity between the serpent and the woman, and between his seed and her seed, so will He order it that the last husband shall hate her.

§124. they not only did not wish to cleanse themselves of the blood of Christ, but also to take it on themselves, saying, “His blood be upon us, and on our children,” on account of which they are found guilty not only of the blood of the prophets, but, filling up the measure of their fathers, they are found guilty also of the blood of Christ, and hear God saying to them, “When you lift up your hands towards me, I will turn my eyes away from you; for your hands are full of blood.” Therefore the blood of Jesus was not only blamed upon them, who were alive then, but also on every generation of the Jews following after, until the end of the world.[9] For this reason their house is now derelict and deserted by them.

  • Origen, New homilies on the Psalms. Not in BiblIndex or TLG.  Newly published in GCS, and they do contain references; but the volume is not accessible to me at this time.
  • Hippolytus (pseudo), In sanctum pascha, gives an exegesis of Exodus 12, seeing the sacrifice of the passover lamb as a prediction of Christ’s death.[10]

23.  The [passover] lamb is then slain “towards the evening”.  And in fact it is also at sunset that the Lamb sacred to God was put to death.  24.  “the whole assembly of the sons of Israel shall kill it.”  (Ez. 12:6) The unbelieving Israel in fact becomes responsible for this precious Blood, some then by pouring it out, the others until today in refusing to believe.  This is why the Holy Spirit witnesses against them and exclaims, “Your hands are full of blood.” (Is. 1:15)

  • Lactantius, Diuinae Institutiones (Divine Institutions), VII.1. [11]

… in this book we will relate His second advent, which the Jews also both confess and hope for; but in vain, since He must return to the confusion of those for whose call He had before come. For they who impiously treated Him with violence in His humiliation, will experience Him in His power as a conqueror; and, God requiting them, they will suffer all those things which they read and do not understand; inasmuch as, being polluted with all sins, and moreover sprinkled with the blood of the Holy One, they were devoted to eternal punishment by that very One on whom they laid wicked hands. But we shall have a separate subject against the Jews, in which we shall convict them of error and guilt.

For thus did we also fast, when our Lord suffered, for a testimony of the three days; and we were keeping vigil and praying and interceding for the destruction of the People, because that they erred and confessed not our Saviour. So do you also pray that the Lord may not remember their guilt against them unto the end for the guile which they used against our Lord, but may grant them a place of repentance and conversion, and forgiveness of their wickedness.

For he who was a heathen and of a foreign people [cf. Gosp. of Peter 1], Pilate [[190]] the judge, did not consent to their deeds of wickedness, but took water and washed his hands, and said: I am innocent of the blood of this man [Mt 27.24]. But the People answered and said: His blood be upon us, and upon our children [Mt 27.25]; and Herod commanded that He should be crucified [cf. Gosp. of Peter 1]; and our Lord suffered for us on the Friday. Especially incumbent on you therefore is the fast of the Friday and of the Sabbath; and likewise the vigil and watching of the Sabbath, and the reading of the Scriptures, and psalms, and prayer and intercession for them that have sinned, and the expectation and hope of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus, until the third hour in the night after the Sabbath. And then offer your oblations; and thereafter eat and make good cheer, and rejoice and be glad, because that the earnest of our resurrection, Christ, is risen. And this shall be a law to you for ever, unto the end of the world. For to those who have not believed in our Saviour He is dead, because their hope in Him is dead; but to you who believe, our Lord and Saviour is risen, because your hope in Him is immortal and living for ever.

Fast then on the Friday, because thereon the People killed themselves in crucifying our Saviour; and on the Sabbath also, because it is the sleep (p. 94) of our Lord; for it is a day which ought especially to be kept with fasting: even as blessed Moses also, the prophet of all (things touching) this matter, commanded. For because he knew by the Holy Spirit and it was commanded him by Almighty God, who knew what the People were to do to His Son and His beloved Jesus Christ, — as even then they denied Him in the person of Moses, and said: Who hath appointed thee head and judge over us? [Ex 2.14] — therefore he bound them beforehand with mourning perpetually, in that he set apart and appointed the Sabbath for them. For they deserved to mourn, because they denied their Life, and laid [[191]] hands upon their Saviour and delivered Him to death. Wherefore, already from that time there was laid upon them a mourning for their destruction.

  • Eusebius, Commentarii in Isaiam (Commentary on Isaiah). [13]

On Isaiah 3:14: That which had been predicted of all the prophet’s predictions happened: the people were handed over to the mockers of the Lord and their young rulers. And the Word explains anew that the reason why he accuses them of all these things is not their idolatry but because they have given evil counsel against themselves, saying: “Let us bind the just, for he is a nuisance to us,” … You see the reason why the previously mentioned things were taken away. For their own tongues provoked the Lord, at which point in time they vented their wicked voices, saying: “Away with him, away with him,” “His blood be on us and on our children!” For then truly Their tongue and practices were against the Lord and provoked him.

On Isaiah 59:3: Therefore, he teaches that the reason the people have fallen away and been jettisoned so far from God is nothing other than their sins. He recounts their situation when he says next: Your hands have been defiled with blood and your fingers with sins, and your lips have spoken lawlessness. One can see clearly that he does not find fault with them for idolatry or some other lawless practice but rather for the murder of their hands and the lawlessness of their mouths, by which he alludes to their uprising against the Savior and their scheme against righteous people. … They themselves may not have been the murderers of the Savior, but they demanded that “his blood be on them and on their children.” And they proclaimed with godless cries that they indeed had hands that had been defiled with blood, and lips that had spoken lawlessness and a tongue that had plotted unrighteousness.

  • Eusebius, Commentarii in Psalmos (Commentary on the Psalms)(in PG 23). [14]  These are explanations of the psalms, treating them as predictions of Christ.

On Ps.21:12-14. For tribulation is very near: for there is none to help me. Many calves have surrounded me, strong bulls of Bashan have surrounded me. You will not depart from the truth, if you say the bulls of Bashan means the leaders of the Jewish people; or the leaders of the priests, the scribes, and the elders…  They opened against him their mouths, just like a lion raging and roaring, saying, Away with him, away with him, crucify him.  His blood be upon us and our descendants.  But Aquila reads Just like the lion, seizing and roaring; Symmachus: Just like a lion, coming and roaring.  But those who were thirsting for blood, and procuring that their children be responsible for the blood of the Saviour, were no different from a roaring lion.

On Ps.34:23-26.  (I was unable to locate any reference here)

On Ps.54:7-12.  No reference: “And obviously the gospels tell in what way the voices of the whole population of the Jews were open against him to Pontius Pilate.  Which is declared likewise in the 21st psalm saying…”

On Ps.58:7-12.  (Same sort of material again, the “Jews” are not even mentioned)

On Ps.58:13.  And I’m amazed at the accuracy of the prophecy of the Holy Spirit.  Because in the time of our Saviour, the Jews could not put to death, but it was by the hand of the Romans, when Pilate gave judgement, after the soldiers surrounded and arrested him, and nothing was done by the Jews.  By law they could not put to death, but only prosecute.  For the leaders of the Jews went into council, and conspired to kill him.  And false witnesses and sycophants, eager for their pay, stood in the sight of the Saviour.  And the whole people with their voices and lips demanded his blood upon them and their children.  Remember that by law therefore they could not put to death, what Pilate decreed, his soldiers carried out; but the conspiracy of the leaders of the priests, the testimony of the sycophants, and the voice against him of the multitude.  [Apologies for this terrible translation of col. 545, but it gives the gist.]

  • Eusebius, Commentarii in Psalmos (Via Pitra). [15]

On Ps.17:44-46: (44. Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people: thou wilt make me head of the Gentiles. 45. A people, which I knew not, hath served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me. 46. The children that are strangers have lied to me, strange children have faded away, and have halted from their paths.[16]) In the character of a prophet, David, looking to the future, sets forth two groups: from one he prays to be delivered, but that he might be admitted to the honour of joined to the other.  Indeed he clearly declares those with whom he seeks to be joined, the gentiles, in these words: You will make me head of the gentiles, and clearly the other class from whom he prays to be rescued, is none other than the circumcised race.  From this chosen people he demands to be removed, from their contradictions.  Notice how he does not attack the superstition of idols, nor the other evils and unjust deeds, but the contradictions.  Meanwhile consider with what prophetic instinct the objections are brought forward, which were made against the Saviour, which the entire people before brought out at the time when Christ was suffering, when meet with Pilate [who said], “Who do you wish that I should release to you, Barabbas or Jesus called Christ?” they asked for Barabbas to be released, but Jesus to be put away, and angrily shouted and yelled,  displaying his contradiction of them, when Pilate was also saying, “I am innocent of his blood.  You can see this!”  responding the people said, “His blood be upon us and our children.”  Which therefore, in the same divine Spirit, David foreseeing, he asked to be rescued from the people with contradictions, lest his soul after death be numbered with those against God in this impiety.  Likewise he said, “Rescue me from the contradictions of the people.”  And going further, he continued, “The children that are strangers have lied to me.  The stranger children have grown hardened, and have wandered from their paths.”

But he addresses them as children, on account of the succession and seed of Abraham; but he calls them strangers on account of their innate character.  Passing however to another order, he eloquently proclaims the calling of the gentiles to outstrip them, and that it will come about that honour will be decreed for the gentiles themselves.  Thus he says… “You will make me head of the Gentiles. A people, who I knew not, have served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me.

These oracles have so been fulfilled in effect and execution, by the action of the Holy Spirit, as the prophet foresaw from afar, in order that trust may be established from the prophecy.  For everyone, in the whole world of men, whether among the barbarians or the Greeks, inspecting by eye all peoples, in whatever tongue and voice, above or below, circulates a commendation of the memory of David, and holds his name in  honour, intoning his praises throughout the universal churches of Christ …

  • Eusebius, De solemnitate paschali. Here. [17]

10. But he himself, before he suffered, ate the Pascha and celebrated the festival with his disciples, not with the Jews.  But when had celebrated the festival at evening, the chief priests came upon him with the traitor and laid their hands on him; … those who had become defiled already in soul and body by their bloodthirstiness against the Savior feared to come in under [Pilate’s] roof!  They, on the one hand, on that very day of the passion, ate the Pascha that was injurious to their own souls, and asked for the Savior’s blood—not on their own behalf, but to their own detriment; our Savior, on the other hand, not then, but the day before, reclined at table with his disciples and conducted the festival that was desirable to himself.  11. Do you see how from that time, he [i.e., Jesus] was separating himself from them and moving away from the Jews’ bloodthirstiness, but was joining himself with his disciples, celebrating the desirable festival together with them?  So then, we too ought to eat the Pascha with Christ, while purifying our minds from all leaven of evil and wickedness, and taking our fill of the unleavened bread of truth and sincerity, and having within ourselves, in our souls, the “Jew in secret” and the true circumcision, and anointing the doorposts of our minds with the blood of the Lamb who was sacrificed for us, to ward off our destroyer.

  • Eusebius, Demonstratio evangelicaVIII.3; IX.12 (or IX.11); X.3; X.8[18]  This is concerned with showing from the OT, verse by verse, how its prophecies have come to pass in the life of Christ.

VIII.3   … all this it says will come to pass because of the sin of the house of Jacob, and the transgression of the house of Israel. And it goes on to describe this sin and transgression, “They that defile judgment and pervert all that is right, who build Sion with blood and Jerusalem with unrighteousness.” With blood! Yes, this was the cause of their final misery, for that they pronounced the impious curse upon themselves, saying, “His blood be on us and on our children.” Therefore, it says this, “Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall be as a storehouse of fruit,” a prophecy which was only actually fulfilled after the impious treatment of our Saviour. For from that time to this utter desolation has possessed the land…

IX.11   So, then, we that are the Gentiles know and receive the prophet that was foretold… while the Jewish nation, not receiving Him that was foretold, has paid the fit penalty according to the divine prediction which said, “And the man who will not hear all things whatsoever the prophet shall speak in My Name, I will exact vengeance on him.” Surely He has avenged on that people all the blood poured out on the earth, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, yea, even to crown all to the Christ Himself, Whose blood they called down not only on themselves but on their children, and even now they pay the penalty of their presumptuous sin.

X.3    And all this was fulfilled, when “The passers-by reviled him, wagging their heads and saying, He saved others, himself he cannot save.” And since, even now, the Jews draw down the curse of their fathers upon themselves, and are wont with blasphemy and impious words to anathematize our Lord and Saviour and all that believe on Him, He goes on to say:

“They shall curse, but thou wilt bless. May they that arise against me be ashamed, but thy servant shall rejoice. Let them who speak evil of me be clothed with shame, and be clothed in confusion as with a cloak. But I will confess the Lord with my mouth, and amid many will I praise him, for he stood by the right hand of the poor, to save my soul from the persecutors.”

And it is quite clear, even now, to what evils they that invoke curses in their synagogues have grown accustomed, never at all being able to recover from those same times, while He offers to His Father in the midst of many nations the praise of His new Covenant, having the Father working with Him, Who sits at His own right hand.

X.8   The dogs that surrounded Him and the council of the wicked were the rulers of the Jews, the Scribes and High Priests, and the Pharisees, who spurred on the whole multitude to demand His blood against themselves and against their own children. … For when it was their duty, even if they could not acquire the character of shepherds, to protect like good sheepdogs their Master’s spiritual flock and the sheep of the house of Israel, and to warn by barking, and to fawn upon their Master and recognize Him, … they preferred like senseless dogs, yes, like mad dogs, to drive the sheep wild by barking… And all who even now conduct themselves like them in reviling and barking at the Christ of God in the same way may be reckoned their kin; …. Yea, all who to-day insult the Body of Christ, that is the Church, and attempt to destroy the hands and feet and very bones, are of their number…

  • Eusebius, Generalis elementaria introductio (Eclogae Propheticae.). [19]

All the things which are narrated as physically done by Moses, our Lord and Saviour completed by the spiritual law.  So he came, and now openly, to the Samaritans and the Jews, which the prophet Moses also predicted, about whom God bore testimony, saying, “He who does not hear his words, which he speaks in my name, I will avenge it on him.”  Avenged, therefore, is the blood of all from Abel to Zechariah, killed between the temple and the altar; avenged is the suffering of the Saviour, above all on those who dared to yell at him, “Crucify, crucify him! Away with him from the earth! His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  Which also came about immediately, when God vindicated the blood of Christ upon them and their children.  For the punishment has so followed them, that from then until the present time the whole race [of the Jews] has hardly been able to hold up its head, having filled up and more the prophecy of Amos, saying, “For the wrath of God has come upon them to the uttermost.”

  • Eusebius, Laudatio martyrum omnium (Encomium on the martyrs). Here[20]  I was unable to locate any reference to the passage in this text.

Post-Nicene writers

  • Hilary of Poitiers, Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. ca. 350 AD [21]

Chapter 1, 6:  As Herod was plotting the death of the newborns, Joseph was warned by the angel to move the child to Egypt, the same Egypt which is full of idols and venerates monstrous omens of every kind of god.  Even now, after persecution from the Jews and the agreement of wicked people who sought to kill him, Christ passes over to the pagans who are devoted to the most futile religious practices.  Forsaking Judaea, he is presented to an ignorant world as one worthy of worship, while Bethlehem, that is Judaea, overflows with the blood of the martyrs.  Indeed the fury of Herod and the killing of the infants are a pattern of the Jewish people raging against the Christians; the former imagining that by the slaughter of the blessed martyrs they are able to wipe out the name of Christ from the faith and the profession of all [believers].

chapter 33, 1: … And so Pilate washed his hands and bore witness to the Jews that he was innocent of the Lord’s blood.  While the Jews have accepted upon themselves and their children the crime of shedding the Lord’s blood, the pagans, by washing themselves, are daily passing over to a confession of faith.

  • Hilary, Tractatus mysteriorum. [22]  The SC editor heads this section: “The crime of Cain prefigures the passion of Christ.”

The blood of Abel thus is claimed by those who, as had been prefigured in Cain, have persecuted the just and are accursed by the earth who, opening her mouth, has received the blood of his brother.  In the body of Christ, in fact in which are the apostles and the church, it is the blood of all the just that their race and their entire posterity has taken upon their own heads, crying “His blood be upon us and on our sons.”

  • Hilary, Tractatus super psalmos I – XCI. [23]  The text discusses the psalm.  Jews are not mentioned.

On Ps.2. (“He who sits in heaven laughs and mocks at them.”) Ch.12.  Therefore they are mocked and ridiculed [by God], those who concocted false testimony, who were the merchants of betrayal, who on themselves and their children accepted his blood, who yelled “Crucify!”, who said, “If you are the son of God, come down from the cross,” who sealed the tomb, who purchased silence from the soldiers about the resurrection and a rumour that the body had been stolen: they have wasted so much the work of their impiety.

On Ps. 51. Ch. 9: Then follows, “You have preferrred evil over good” … and so, for him for the redemption of sins the word became flesh and God was born a man, so that he might be free from the reproach of the law by the justification of faith, while in transgressing the law he preferred to be a slave to evil, himself handed his God over to punishment, his blood, being innocent, taking it upon himself, and doing this he changes the custom of nature, for he chooses evil over good, and turns back from the love of good.

  • Ambrosiaster, Quaestiones Veteris et Noui Testamenti (numero CXXVII). (127 questions about the Old and New Testament), Q.98, “On the gospel of John”, ch.3.[24]  The question is on John 8:44, where Jesus tells the Jews, “You belong to your father, the devil, and you want to carry out your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning…” and the question is who is “your father, the devil”.  In ch. 2 we are told it is Cain, who murdered Abel and denied it with a lie.

3.  Therefore the Jews, having become his [Cain’s] imitators, likewise killed the Lord himself, preferring to have Cain the fratricide as their father, rather than God, to make all the blood shed happen, for the leaders of the crime are on record as killing the author of all life, so also they were involving their children in this evil, saying, “His blood be upon us and our children,” while Pilate was urging them not to do the evil that they desired, they said that it should be turned back on their children, if it was unjust, because, so long as they might be satisfied in their fury, they did not wish to spare their children.

  • Athanasius, Epistulae festales (Festal Letters) 1-7 ; 11-14 ; 17-20 (syr.), PG 26 (1857), 1360-1397 ; 1403-1432. § 5 (p.1406).  Syriac translation Here.  But I was unable to find any reference to Matt.27:25 in these letters.
  • Athanasius, Expositiones in Psalmos.  Not in BiblIndex. TLG. [25]  The catenist treats the comments in the previous section as applying equally to Jews and Gentiles.

On Ps.89:8.  “You have set our iniquities before our eyes.”  You have not passed over, he says, our iniquities, since we have called them down ourselves on our own heads, because we said, “His blood be upon us and upon our children,” “May our age be in the light of your face.”  It is as if to say, “Our life and its works seem evil in your sight. There is nothing that you do not know about the acts in us, from the beginning to the end.”

  • Basil of Caesarea, Sermones de moribus a Symeone Metaphrasta collecti.  (Sermons on manners collected by Symeon Metaphrastes). Sermo IX: De Oratione. Not in BiblIndex. TLG[26]  Subject is that you can’t pray your way out of sin by many prayers.

Of the same sort are Jewish prayers; even when they extend their hands [in prayer], they recall to mind the wicked crime against God, the Father of the only-begotten Son, and by their every extension they reveal the hands of Christ filled with blood.  To be sure as they persevere in their blindness, they are heirs to the paternal murder. “For his blood”, they said, “be upon use and upon our children.”

  • Basil of Caesarea (pseudo), Enarratio in prophetam Isaiam.[27]

On Isaiah 1:15. 37. Your hands are full of blood.  This is the reason why God turns away his eyes, when they extend their hands, because their supplications themselves are the cause of his anger.  For if someone kills the beloved son of another, and then extends hands still stained with blood to his father, … will not the blood of the son itself exasperate the father?  In the same way today the prayers of the Jews, if they extend their hands, they recall to God the Father the wicked crime against his only-begotten son, and every extending of hands reveals those hands full of the blood of Christ.  For although in their blindness they continue, they are the heirs of the paternal murder.  “For his blood,” they said, “be upon us and our children.”

A second reference via TLG is not accessible to me.

  • Gregory Nazianzen, Oration 41: For the day of Pentecost, ch. 17. [28]  This seems to be a an exposition from the biblical text.

The captivity in Egypt and at Babylon was for a limited space and had long been ended by the return. That caused by the Romans had not yet taken place, but it would come, being a punishment for the audacity of the Jews against the Savior.

  • Gregory Nazianzen, Oration 4 (Against Julian). [29]

68.  … You’re a persecutor like Herod, you’re a traitor like Judas, except you haven’t killed yourself like he did to show he repented; you’re a murderer of Christ like Pilate; you’re an hater of God like the Jews!

  • Gregory Nazianzen, Oration 6: On peace among the monks. Ch. 17.[30]  The quarrels of Israel drew on them their misfortunes.

But when these men began to be ill, and quarrelled, some against the others, and divided themselves into numerous factions, when the cross reduced them to extremities, and their foolish temerity towards our God and Saviour, since they did not recognise God in man, and so drew on themselves the rod of iron which was threatening them from afar – I mean that authority and realm which actually had power – what happened, and what were their misfortunes?

  • Gregory of Nyssa, Sermon 5 on the resurrection.[31]  Gregory quotes Isaiah 53:2-3: “He had no beauty or majesty to attract us to him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected by mankind, a man of suffering, and familiar with pain. Like one from whom people hide their faces, he was despised, and we held him in low esteem.”  He asks when was Jesus “ignoble”.  He mentions when Jesus spoke to wicked Jews (i.e. sinners) and Samaritans.

When was he not honoured?  When the dogs barked, and the Lord bore it patiently; when the wolves ravaged; and the sheep stood still; when he was begged for life by a thief, and the Life of the World was drawn down to death; when they shouted with coarse and destructive voice, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him! His blood be upon us and our children!”  Hewers of the Lord, killers of the prophets, enemies of God; haters of God, unjust in law, enemies of grace, strangers to the faith of their fathers, patrons of the devil, a family of serpents, tale-bearers, babblers, minds stuck in darkness, the leaven of the Pharisees, the assembly of demons.  Wicked men, wimps, stoners, haters of honesty.  But justly they shout, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!”  For the connection of divinity with flesh was serious to them;  and,  a blameworthy tradition, it was dangerous;  for in death he was placed with sinners, and united and with those hated by the just. …

  • Asterius, 31 Homilies on the Psalms (Commentarii in psalmos homiliae 31).  Homily 21 (Homily 2 on Ps. 11), section 14. TLG. [32]

Then he said to Thomas: ‘Put your hand in my side, not to pierce my side with a spear as the soldier, but (so that) you may receive the blood and water from my side in your mind, and learn why the blood and water came out, the two witnesses of the Lord-killers: the blood in order to convict the Jews who said; ‘His blood be on us and on our children’; the water, in order to accuse Pilate, who taking water and washing his hands, as innocent an innocent and righteous [man] scourged and crucified.

  • Epiphanius, De duodecim gemmis (On the 12 gems) (georg., arm., copt. fgt). [33]  This is a narrative about those of the dead who rose and went into Jerusalem when Christ rose from the dead.

Those who had risen made reply: «Know you not that the earth quaked and the abysses gaped and the nethermost depths of hell were destroyed? What was it you did on that day, or what was this matter?» Then these [of the tribe of Israel] remembered and said : «We seized a certain deceiver called Jesus and crucified him.» Those who had risen, however, lifted up their voices and said : «Woe unto you! He it was Who came unto us; He destroyed the walls of hell and severed the bonds of death through His might and caused us to rise up from our biers». The saying was fulfilled in which it is said : «Let the dead rise and let all be exalted, who have dwelt on the biers», and the Lord of Life shall show that He has by his power severed the bonds of the souls who were confined in Hades, thanks to His descent into hell…

  • Didymus, De Spiritu sancto. (On the holy spirit[34]  The punishment of Israel by God predicted by the OT:

219. Indeed, although they rushed into madness, to the point of killing Him who had been sent because of them, saying, “His blood be on us and on our children”, however, God raised Him from the earth, in which he remained for three days and three nights – as shepherd of his sheep, since the text continues: “who made the earth bring forth the shepherd of the sheep.” [Is.63:11]  220.  That our Lord Jesus Christ was the shepherd of the sheep that the text of the prophet mentions here…

  • Didymus, Fragmenta in Psalmos. [35]  As he indicates in his preface, Didymus attempts to relate every verse of the psalms to an event in the NT.

Fr.583. (On Ps.54:24 “And as for them, thou, O God, shalt bring them into the pit of destruction.”)  He [the psalmist] desires that those men should be humiliated by God, “who is before time”, who do not respect Him, and those above all who defile the “testament of God”.  He calls “Men of blood” those who said, “His blood be upon us, and on our children” and upon whom “let there come all the righteous blood that has been shed upon the earth”. They are also called “cunning” men, who by their cunning always attacked the Saviour and the righteous.  These, therefore, he desires should not live out half their days.  For when, after rejecting the day which was made to bring forth the true light, they set up for themselves another day of illumination through false teachings, it is not fit that they should complete their days.  He prays therefore that they should not finish half their days, that illuminated by the sun of justice, they may come to the day of the Lord.  You may say also, but by twisting the words of scripture, “Since those men were determined to sin, if they remained alive, they would slide into further evils, showing mercy, he prays that they are cut off in the middle of the course of life, and so be punished for few rather than for many sins.” Although they may think so, he says, I hope and trust in you, Lord.

Fr.717 (Ps.68:29 – “Let them be wiped out of the book of the living, and not be written among the righteous.”) By an allegory it is said that Jesus expected reproach and misery so that, having suffered for the world, he might bear its sin. There was no-one among those men called Israelites according to the flesh, who would die with him; for which reason he was saddened, having a sad soul until death. Nor did anyone who might comfort him, having learned through the prophets of his death. Rather they took up the fruit of gall and vinegar, they did not preserve the vineyard which in the beginning God had planted, the Jews “every vine fruitful and true: but turned into bitterness, you have been made alien from the vines.” They consider these things as enemies, as if destitute of reason. “For of the vine of Sodom are their vines, and their branches of Gommorah; their grapes are poisoned grapes, a cluster of bitterness to them: a fury of dragons is their wine, and the incurable fury of the asp.” These grapes of gall and clusters of bitterness they gave to him, thirsty for their salvation: for the corruption of wine is vinegar.  [It is not found except in the calling of the gentiles, who both grieve with them and comfort them; and so they say, “If we die with him, we will also live with him” and “Having become part of his death, we will likewise be part of his resurrection.”]

  • Ambrose of Milan, Letters (1881). pp. 213-269. Letter 32, To Irenaeus (not in BiblIndex).  Discussing the meaning of a bible verse, and a query about the stars and planets.

Letter 32.  To Irenaeus.[36] …. 4.  The partridge then cried, he that is, who derives his name from destroying: even Satan, which in Latin means the adversary. He cried first in Eve, he cried in Cain, he cried in Pharoah, in Dathan, Abiram, Corah. He cried in the Jews, when they demanded gods to be made for them, while the law was being given to Moses. He cried again, when they said of the Saviour, Let Him be crucified, let Him be crucified, and, His blood be on us and on our children. He cried, when they required that a king should be given them, that they might revolt from the Lord God their King. He cried in every one who was vain and faithless.

Letter 34.  To Horontianus.[37]  1. You have enquired of me whether the soul is formed of a heavenly substance… Wherefore the heavenly bodies although they groan in that they are subject to the vanity of this world, yet follow the example of His goodness, and console themselves with the expectation of being delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of glory, when the adoption of the sons of God, that is, the redemption of all men, shall have arrived. For when the fulness of the Gentiles shall be come in, then all Israel shall be saved. For what people will He not pardon when He even pardons that persecuting people, who said, Crucify Him, crucify Him, and, His blood be on us and on our children. But since even the heavenly creation is subject to vanity, albeit in hope, will not He Who is ‘ truly Mercy itself and the Redeemer of the world, suffer even the perfidy and insolence into which these men through the vanity of the world have fallen to obtain pardon?

  • Chrysostom, Against the Jews, homily 1, c.5; homily 6, 1:7  [38]  There are multiple references in homily 6 to the Jews killing Christ.

Hom. 1, c.5:  But I must get back again to those who are sick. Consider, then, with whom they [Judaizing Christians] are sharing their fasts. It is with those who shouted: “Crucify him, Crucify him”, with those who said: “His blood be upon us and upon our children”. If some men had been caught in rebellion against their ruler and were condemned, would you have dared to go up to them and to speak with them? I think not. Is it not foolish, then, to show such readiness to flee from those who have sinned against a man, but to enter into fellowship with those who have committed outrages against God himself? Is it not strange that those who worship the Crucified keep common festival with those who crucified him? Is it not a sign of folly and the worst madness?

Hom. 6, 1:7.  … it could be that they [the martyrs] will derive great pleasure from my conflict with the Jews; they might well listen most intently to a discourse given for God’s glory. For the martyrs have a special hatred for the Jews since the Jews crucified him for whom they have a special love. The Jews said: “His blood be on us and on our children” the martyrs poured out their own blood for him whom the Jews had slain. So the martyrs would be glad to hear this discourse.

2:9-10.  (9) If he turns away from you now because of your sins, he should have done so all the more in those days. If he put up with you when you were living lives of ungodliness, he ought to put up with you all the more now that you venture no such enormities. Why, then, has he not put up with you? Even if you are too ashamed to give the reason, I will state it clearly. Rather, I will not state it, but the truth of the facts will do so.  (10) You did slay Christ, you did lift violent hands against the Master, you did spill his precious blood. This is why you have no chance for atonement, excuse, or defense. In the old days your reckless deeds were aimed against his servants, against Moses, Isaiah, and Jeremiah. Even if there was ungodliness in your acts then, your boldness had not yet dared the crowning crime. But now you have put all the sins of your fathers into the shade. Your mad rage against Christ, the Anointed One, left no way for anyone to surpass your sin. This is why the penalty you now pay is greater than that paid by your fathers. If this is not the reason for your present disgrace, why is it that God put up with you in the old days when you sacrificed your children to idols, but turns himself away from you now when you are not so bold as to commit such a crime? Is it not clear that you dared a deed much worse and much greater than any sacrifice of children or transgression of the Law when you slew Christ?

  • Chrysostom, Contra eos qui subintroductas habent uirgines (Against those who have virgins living with them), ch. 3.[39].  This argues that it is morally unsafe to have monks and nuns living together.

“But what does that matter?”, they say, “we are not accountable for other people’s stupidity, and if someone offends stupidly, do I deserve to pay also for that folly?”  Well! Paul does not use this language: even if someone is falsely scandalized by weakness, he commands us to help him. We are freed from the penalty set, for the scandal caused, only if it results in a greater profit than the damage caused; because otherwise, if there is only scandal caused to others, whether they are scandalized wrongly or rightly or from weakness, their blood is upon our heads, and our hands must now answer to God for their souls.

  • Chrysostom,  New Homilies 7, spoken in the church of St. Anastasia, ch.5.[40]  The context is how tribulation confirms the Gospel.  Chrysostom talks about Peter and John (Acts 5):

The Jews, who, brought up in the blood of the prophets, were a furious people and drawn to madness, who had destroyed the altars, who had killed the prophets, who were trained in massacres, who were fiercer than wild beasts, who were still shedding the Lord’s blood, who had crucified him; having arrested these two fishermen — illiterate, uneducated, obscure, more silent than their fishes, of whom one had less money than a simple door-keeper: these, I say, arrested and tied around the middle, naked, not equipped with the power of money, nor with strength of body, nor with eloquence of words, nor with power of rhetoric, nor with splendour of birth, nor from an important country, fishermen from fishermen, labouring in extreme poverty — they were uncertain in what way to act with them, and said, “What shall we do with these men?”Do you see how great a matter is virtue?  In what way, temptations are the confirmation of the gospel? They said to them, “Did we not firmly command you not to speak in this name? Do you wish to bring upon us the blood of this man?” (Acts 5:28)  But if He is just a man, why do you worry?  But if He is God, why don’t you worship Him?  Can it be that you were recently shouting, “His blood be upon us and our children?” (Matt. 27:25)  For what reason do you fear blood?  Because you recently lost your mind?  Didn’t you tie him up?  Didn’t you flog him?  Didn’t you crucify him?  Didn’t you see him taken down dead from the cross?  Didn’t you see him buried, and the earth opened?  Didn’t you station a squad of soldiers at the tomb?  Didn’t you hire soldiers with a bribe?  Didn’t you circulate a rumour that his disciples had stolen him away?  What do you fear now?  Why do you dread his blood?  Do you see the truth in all its splendour?  For because they saw that the business was carried out as a result of intrigues,  and that the beginning was splendid, and clearer by daylight, and set forth from the start, so that the whole world could understand it, and that the mistake had been pushed to the extreme, nor could His ineffable strength be held back; they feared His virtue, they dreaded the bound, condemned, beaten, plotted-against pair of uneducated men.

  • Chrysostom, Homiliae 1-90 in Matthaeum (Homilies 1-90 on Matthew), homily 87. [41]  “They” is sometimes Jews, and sometimes Romans, in what follows.

For as though they were afraid lest they should seem to fall short at all in the crime, having killed the prophets with their own hands, but this man with the sentence of a judge, so they do in every deed; and make it the work of their own hands, and condemn and sentence both among themselves and before Pilate, saying, “His blood be on us and on our children,” and insult Him, and do despite unto Him themselves, binding Him, leading Him away, and render themselves authors of the spiteful acts done by the soldiers, and nail Him to the cross. and revile Him, and spit at Him, and deride Him. For Pilate contributed nothing in this matter, but they themselves did every thing, becoming accusers, and judges, and executioners, and all.

  • Chrysostom, In principium Actorum homiliae 1-4 (4 homilies on the start of Acts).[42] Note these are not the same as the series of 51 homilies on Acts.

They say, “Are you trying to lay on us the blame for this man’s blood?” (Acts 5:28)  Well if he was just a man, why are you worried about his blood?  You killed many of the prophets, and cut the throats of many of the just, O Jews, nor did you shrink from the blood of any of them.  So why do you shrink now?  Truly the crucified frightened them, and they could not hide their fear, … Indeed until they crucified him, they shouted saying, “His blood be on us and on our children”; so they despised his blood.  But after his passion, when they saw the brightness of his power, they were afraid, and worried, they said, “Are you trying to blame us for this man’s blood?”  But if he was a deceiver, and an enemy of God, as you say, O wicked Jews, why are you afraid of his blood?  If this was so, his murder should be a cause to glory in.  But since it was not such, they trembled.

  • Chrysostom (pseudo), De cruce et latrone (On the cross and the robber). Not in BiblIndex. Possibly Severian of Gabala. [43]  Not accessible to me.
  • Theodoret, Interpretatio in Esaiam. [44]

On Isaiah 1:15.  They [Israel] are not accused of worshipping idols, nor of committing adultery, nor of giving into greed, but of staining themselves with a murder: more difficult to support than any impiety or every iniquity was their act of folly against the Lord.  In fact to them belongs the saying, “His blood be upon us and our children”.  This blood has deprived them of the blessings of others, it has made them the accursed of the world.  All the same in His goodness He has given them a glimpse of the way of salvation, saying: 16. “Wash and be clean.”

On Isaiah 4:4.  The Lord will wash away the filth of the sons and daughters of Zion; he will cleanse the bloodstains from Jerusalem by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of fire.  Again he [Isaiah] refers to blood and purification.  By “blood” he means that which they brought on themselves and their children by crying, “His blood be on us and our children.”  By “purification” he predicts that which produces the bath of regeneration.  However, this done, he says, “by a spirit of judgement and a spirit of fire.” because as gold is purified by being dipped in fire, those who receive baptism lay down the poison of their sins.  The blessed John the Baptist said in his turn, “he will baptise you in the Holy Spirit and with fire.”

On Isaiah 5:7.  Then he explains what he just said allegorically.  The vineyard of the LORD Almighty is the nation of Israel, and the people of Judah are the vines he delighted in. … Then he explains clearly the harvest and the thorns: And he looked for justice, but saw bloodshed; for righteousness, but heard cries of distress.  This passage allows us to recognise clearly that it is because they exercised their madness against the saviour that they were stripped of the divine grace.  It is by the “cries” that this madness is visible.  But the narrative of the holy gospels teaches precisely that they shouted as loudly as possible in turn with cries of “Put him to death! to death!” crucify him!” and “His blood be upon us and our children!”  The prophet condemns still other injustices….

  • Theodoret, Interpretatio in Psalmos (Commentary on the Psalms). On Ps.59. [45] He treats the Psalm as David predicting the rejection of the messiah by the Jews.

(7) Then he teaches more clearly the cause of the punishment. Lo, with their own mouth they will speak out, and a sword on their lips, saying, Who has heard? (v. 7). With their tongue they cause slaughter, he is saying, giving forth their words like some dagger and sword, and events bear out their words. They crucified their Lord with their tongue, crying aloud, “Away, away with him, crucify him! His blood be on us and on our children!” They put their words into action with the aid of Pilate’s troops, and nailed the Savior to the gibbet. The inspired word said this, too: With their own mouth they will speak out, and a sword on their lips, saying, Who has heard? Because the words they utter they use in place of swords….

(10) … This also concurs with what was said before: above he had said, Lo, with their own mouth they will speak out, and a sword on their lips, and here in turn he accuses them of a sin of the mouth, a word of the lips, teaching us in every case that they will pay [1312] a penalty for that statement which they uttered in concert, undermining Pilate’s just verdict. While he intended, in fact, to release him as an innocent man, they cried aloud, “Away, away with him! Crucify him! His blood be on us and on our children.” Symmachus, on the other hand, rendered this more clearly: instead of, Scatter them in your power, he said, “Drive them out in your power and destroy them, O Lord, our protector, in the sin of their mouths, the word of their lips.”

  • Peter Chrysologus, Collectio sermonum (Sermons) From Cetedoc.Eng. translation in FOC 110.

Sermon 72A, FOC 110, p.3. (Not in Cetedoc; this is not discussing the Jews but mankind) The Lord kept warning his disciples of these things time and time again, placing them before their eyes, and, as it were, setting up the arena for his Passion and leading them into it. He was signifying that there would be as many kinds of abuse as there would be kinds of wild beasts; that there would be as many spectators as persecutors, who, in seeking not a victory from the conflict, but only an assent to the death of the Victor, would shout: “Crucify, crucify.” They would go so far as to lift up their savage eyes and their lethal voices to heaven, or rather against heaven, until in their cruel feeding frenzy by contending with holy blood they would smear themselves and their posterity and wallow in that blood, as they yell: “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”

Sermon 76, FOC 110, p.23.[46] And they took the money and did as they had been taught, and that is the story that has spread among the Jews to this very day (vv.12–15). Among the Jews: but not among the Christians? Jew, what you were trying to conceal in Judea with gold, has shone and radiated throughout the whole world by faith. The disciples received Christ, they did not steal him; you have procured unbelief, but you have not stolen the truth. O Jew, Christ has risen, and you have lost your money. “His blood be on us and on our children.” O Jew, Christ is alive, but you have killed yourself and your descendants.

  • Apponius, In Canticum canticorum expositio (Commentary on the Song of Songs) (CPL 0194).  From Cetedoc.  lib. : 12, l. 1136.  French translation of books 1-3 in SC series. “Quos omnes non est dubium manibus aures oculos que clausisse, ne tam horridam uocem audirent dicentium: Crucifige talem, et: Sanguis eius super nos et super filios” TODO
  • Augustine, De consensu euangelistarum (On the harmony of the gospels) (CPL 0273). Book 3, chapter 8. Eng. trans. in NPNF1, v.6, here.[47]

But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. But the governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? And they said, Barabbas. Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say, Let him be crucified. The governor said to them, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person; see ye to it. Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then released he Barabbas unto them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to them to be crucified.” These are the things which Matthew has reported to have been done to the Lord by Pilate.

  • Augustine, Enarrationes in Psalmos (CPL 0283).  English trans. in LFC series.

On Psalm 59.  LFC 30, P.131. [48]  Ver. 2. Deliver me from men working iniquity, and from men of bloods, save Thou me.  They indeed were men of bloods, who slew the Just One, in Whom no guilt they found : they were men of bloods, because when the foreigner washed his hands, and would have let go Christ, they cried, Crucify, Crucify, they were men of bloods, on whom when there was being charged the crime of the blood of Christ, they made answer, giving it to their posterity to drink, His blood be upon us and upon our sons. But neither against His Body did men of bloods cease to rise up ; for even after the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ, the Church suffered persecutions, and she indeed first that grew out of the Jewish people, of which also our Apostles were.

On psalm 64:5. LFC 30, P.237. [49] He was offering as King the Son of God: they chose a man instead: worthy were they to have the one, and not have the Other. Further hear, in what manner they confirmed malignant discourse. “I find nothing with this Man,” saith the judge, “that deserves death.” And they that confirmed malignant discourse, said,  “His blood be upon us and upon our sons.” They confirmed to themselves malignant discourse. Confirmed malignant discourse, not to the Lord, but to themselves. For how not to themselves, when they say, “Upon us and upon our sons”? That which therefore they confirmed, to themselves they confirmed: because the same voice is elsewhere, They dug before my face a ditch and fell into it.  Death didn’t kill the Lord, but He death : but them iniquity killed, because they would not kill iniquity.  9. Doubtless, brethren, it is certain, that either you kill iniquity, or iniquity kills you.  But do not seek to kill iniquity as if it was something outside yourself….

On Psalm 109. NPNF1, vol. 8. [50]  17. The Psalm then continueth: “His delight was in cursing, and it shall happen to him” (ver. 17). Although Judas loved cursing, both in stealing from the money bag, and selling and betraying the Lord: nevertheless, that people more openly loved cursing, when they said, “His blood be on us, and on our children.” “He loved not blessing, therefore it shall be far from him.” Such was Judas indeed, since he loved not Christ, in whom is everlasting blessing; but the Jewish people still more decidedly refused blessing, unto whom he who had been enlightened by the Lord said, “Will ye also be His disciples?” “He clothed himself with cursing, like as with a raiment:” either Judas, or that people.

  • Augustine. Sermones (CPL 0284)  Cetedoc. 

Sermon 229F. English translation here.[51]  That the Lord Jesus, though, declined to appear to the Jews is because he did not judge them worthy to see the Lord Christ after the resurrection; he showed himself to his own people, not to strangers. And while his own people were preaching, strangers came to believe;4 and those who had been strangers became his own. I mean, many of those, as you can read in the Acts of the Apostles; many of those who crucified the Lord, who defiled themselves by shedding his blood; many of those who said, His blood be upon us and upon our children (Mt 27:25), later on came to believe the apostles bringing them the good news of the resurrection. His blood was indeed upon them, but it was to wash them, not to destroy them; well, upon some to destroy them, upon others to cleanse them; upon those to be destroyed, injustice; upon those to be cleansed, in mercy.

Sermon 234, ch. 3.  FOC 38, p.225. [52]  Behold, I have told you that the faith which marks us off from pagans is that by which we believe that Christ Jesus rose from the dead. Ask any pagan whether Christ was crucified: he declares emphatically: ‘Certainly, He was.’ Then ask whether He rose again; he denies it. Ask any Jew whether Christ was crucified; he acknowledges the sin of his ancestors, in which he, too, shares for he drinks the cup which those ancestors passed down to him with the words : ‘His blood be on us and on our children.’ But ask the Jew whether Christ rose again from the dead; he will deny it, ridicule it, and accuse you. Thus we are separated.

  • Quodvultdeus, Liber promissionum et praedictorum Dei (Book of the Promises and Prophecies of God) (CPL 0413). Cetedoc. No English tr., but a French edition and translation in Livre des promesses et des prédictions de Dieu. SC101, p.244-5.   From Book 1, ch. 30: [53]

Seeing his brothers, Joseph recognised them, but they did not recognise him; the same was fulfilled by our Joseph [=Jesus Christ], whose brothers did not recognise him, “because if they had recognised him, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory.” (1 Cor.2:8)  Joseph made himself a stranger to his brothers, and said to them through the medium of an interpreter, “You are spies, you have come to spy out the roads of this country.”  Here’s what our Joseph, Jesus Christ, likewise said through the medium of Peter to his persecutors, “You have denied the Holy and Righteous One, and you have killed the prince of eternal life.”  Joseph’s brothers repented of what they had done.  To them also it is said, “Repent.”  Joseph’s brothers say, “We are in sin, because of what we did to our brother,” and Reuben replied, “Did I not tell you not to harm the child?  But you didn’t listen to me.  And here you are, being asked for an account of his blood.”  Likewise the Jews who had said to Pilate, “His blood be upon us and upon our children,” say to the apostles, “What should we do?  Brothers, tell us.”

  • Gregorius Illiberitanus (Gregory of Elvira). Tractatus Origenis de libris Sanctarum Scripturarum (The treatise of Origen on the books of Holy Scripture) (CPL 0546) Cetedoc.  TODO

tract. : 3, linea : 145.  Denique sic et in passione domini idem populus ut collum matris grauaret clamauit: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.

tract. : 9, linea : 121.  <Et> addit: et azima, inquid, cum amaritudinibus edetis, quia ipsis iudaeis amarum esset futurum, quod dominum suum et uitae principem occisuri erant, cuius, ut ita dixerim, uiua mors excitauit mortuos, amarum utique eis, qui quasi ad latronem noctu uenerunt, amari claui, quibus eum confixerunt, amara azima ab ipsis semper edenda, amara uerba, quibus clammabant: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, amarus iudas scariotes, quem mercede conduxerunt, amarae spinae, quibus caput eius ad deludendum coronarunt, amarae manus, quibus domini sanguinem effuderunt.

  • Jerome, Commentarii in Danielem (Commentary on Daniel). Here[54]  This discusses the chronology of the “weeks” in Daniel.

And then, after our Lord’s passion, the sacrifice and offering ceased in the middle of the week. For whatever took place in the Temple after that date was not a valid sacrifice to God but a mere worship of the devil, while they all cried out together, “His blood be upon us and upon our children” (Matt. 27:25); and again, “We have no king but Caesar.” Any reader who is interested may look up this passage in the Chronicle of this same Eusebius, for I translated it into Latin many years ago.

  • Jerome,  Letter 129, To Dardanus, On the Promised Land[55]  A hasty letter responding to the question “what is the promised land”?

6. These statements [limiting the scope of “the promised land”] are not intended to insult the country of Judea, according to the lies of a sycophant heretic, nor to destroy the historical reality, which is the foundation of spiritual interpretation, but to bring down the pride of the Jews, who prefer the narrowness of the synagogue to the width of the church. If they want to be content to follow the letter that kills, not the spirit that gives life, let them show us a Promised Land flowing with milk and honey. But if they admit that these terms are used by tropology for an abundance of all things, we have the right, too, prefer the land of divine praise, land of the living, to the land of spiny bushes.  …

7. You have committed, O Jew, many crimes, you have been the slave of all the surrounding nations. For what reason? Certainly, because of your idolatry. …[a list of the conquerors of Jerusalem] … It is now a little less than four hundred years after the demolition of the temple, and nothing remains of the city and temple ruins. For what great crime? Certainly you do not worship idols; even when enslaved by the Persians and the Romans, and subjected to the yoke of captivity, you rejected the foreign gods.  Why has the so clement God, who has never forgotten you, now after such a long space of time, not been moved by your misfortunes to free you from your captivity – or, to speak more exactly, to send to you the Antichrist you are waiting for? For what enormous crime, I say, and for what execrable crime does he turn his eyes away from you?  Don’t you know? Remember the cry of your fathers: “His blood be on us and on our children”; and “Come, let us kill him and the inheritance will belong to us”; and again: “We have no king but Caesar. “You got what you chose: until the end of the world you will serve Caesar, “until all the Gentiles be come, then Israel as a whole will be saved “, so that the which formerly was first will be last.

  • Jerome, Commentary on Matthew. Book 4, on 27:25. Not in Biblindex.[56] Jerome has just discussed Pilate’s unwilling verdict.

The judge who is compelled to bring a verdict against the Lord does not condemn the one offered, but exposes those who offered him; he pronounces that he who is to be crucified is just. “See to it yourselves,” he says; I am a minister of the laws; it is your voice that is shedding his blood.

27:25. And all the people answered and said: “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”This imprecation upon the Jews continues until the present day. The Lord’s blood will not be removed from them. This is why it says through Isaiah: “If you wash your hands before me, I will not listen; for your hands are full of blood.” The Jews have left the best heritage to their children, saying: “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”

27:26. Then he released for them Barabbas; but he had Jesus scourged, and handed him over to them to be crucified. Barabbas the thief, who made seditions among the crowds, who was the author of murders, was released to the people of the Jews. He stands for the devil, who reigns in them until today. It is for this reason that they are unable to have peace. But Jesus, having been handed over by the Jews, is absolved by the wife of Pilate, and is called a just man by the governor himself.

  • Jerome, Commentary on Jeremiah. [57]  This material at more length here.

6:21: “Therefore thus says the Lord: ‘Behold, I will lay before this people devastations, and they shall be devastated by them,’ — or ‘weakness, and they shall become weak by them’—’fathers and sons together, neighbor and friend shall perish.’”     We see that everything the Lord threatened against this people has been fulfilled. For daily they are devastated by their blasphemies; there is nothing of strength in them, but every one among them is weak. Sons follow the blasphemies of their fathers, and every day they receive this curse: “His blood be on us and on our children!” And not only they but also their “neighbors and friends”—all who follow the law and the prophets according to the letter that kills and not according to the Spirit that gives life—all of them perish equally, because all have sinned equally.

17:1. The sin of Judah is inscribed with an iron pen with an adamant point, written on the tablet of their hearts and on the horns of their altars.  … The sins of the gentles are erased, because converted to the Lord from the ends of the earth they hear this, “Praise the Lord, all you nations…”.  But the indelible sin of Judah, which, as I might say, has no reason to be abolished, is written with an iron pen with an adamant point, which in Hebrew is called … and it lasts because it is inscribed, for eternity.  For they themselves said, “His blood be upon us and upon our children”.  Which is why it is written or inscribed on the horns of the altars, or their altars, so that the sacrilegious work should be held in memory for ever.

18:19-22a: … It was as a type of the Savior that Jeremiah endured all of this at the hands of the Jewish people, who later were destroyed when the Babylonians came. But it was fulfilled more fully and more perfectly in Christ, when the city was overthrown and the people were massacred by the Roman sword, not because of idolatry (which was not a problem at that time), but because they killed the Son of God, when all the people cried out together: “Away, away with such a one! We have no king but Caesar!” And the curse of eternal damnation against them was fulfilled: “His blood be on us and on our children!” For they had dug a pit for Christ and said, “Let us remove him from the land of the living!”

  • Maximinus the Arian, Collectio Veronensis: Contra Iudaeos (CPL 0696). Cetedoc.[58]

 

From which now we can see that there was written in the law at that time what was fulfilled in the holy gospel, when you [the Jews] were shouting, saying, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  But for us it is a blessing to say, “His blood be upon us and our children”; for you a condemnation, but for us to salvation; because we say that for you it applies by design, for us by understanding; you it drives to rage, us to prayer; you to insults, us to humbly pray; you, out of hate, us, out of love;  you that you may be sad, but us that we may ever be rejoicing.

  • Leo Magnus (Leo I), Tractatus septem et nonaginta (97 Sermons) (CPL 1657).  Cetedoc.  English translation Pope Leo I: Sermons, FOC 93 (1996), tr. J.P.Freeland.  Preview here.

Sermon 35 (On Epiphany), ch. 2, FOC p.152.  [59]  Truth proves a stumbling block to impaired teachers, and light becomes darkness to blind instructors. So, when asked, they reply that it is in Bethlehem that Christ is born. Yet they do not follow their own knowledge, a knowledge in which they instruct others. They have thus lost the royal succession, the worth of their sacrifices, the very place of prayer, and the priestly order. Since all things are closed to them and they find all things at an end for themselves, they do not see that these things have been transferred over into Christ.

 (2) What these three men (representing all nations) obtained when they worshipped the Lord, the whole world acquires in its peoples through the faith that “justifies the godless.” Adopted children receive the Lord’s inheritance, prepared from all eternity, while those who seemed to be the lawful heirs lose it. Come to your senses, Jew, come to your senses at last. Abandon your infidelity and convert to the Redeemer who redeemed you as well. Do not fear the enormity of your crime, for “he calls not the virtuous but sinners,” nor will he who prayed for you when he was crucified” reject you because of your [past] godlessness. Cancel the harsh sentence of your cruel ancestors. Do not allow yourselves to be bound by the curse of those who shouted concerning Christ, “His blood be upon us and upon our children,” and in so doing poured over onto you the guilt for their crime. Return to the Merciful One. Avail yourselves of the clemency of the Forgiving One. The cruelty of your wickedness has been changed into the cause of your salvation. He lives, the one you wanted to kill. Acknowledge the one who was denied, worship the one who was sold, so that you might benefit from the goodness of the one whom your ill will could not harm.

 3. We ought then, dearly beloved, to desire and to work for what belongs to true love, which we owe even “to our enemies” (according to the Lords words), so that this same people who fell away from that spiritual nobility of their fathers might be “engrafted” back into the branches of their tree.

Sermon 53, p.231.[60]  Heaven and earth passed sentence against you, Jews—as the sun withdrew its service of giving daylight, and the laws of nature denied you their function. When the service of creation departs from its laws, it is your blindness and your confusion that have been signified. When you said, “His blood be upon us and upon our children,” you received what was coming to you. That which the faithless part of your race has lost, the believing “fullness of the nations” would attain.

Sermon 62, ch. 3, FOC p.271. (Not in cetedoc)  … but to pardon them, saying, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” Such was the power of his prayer that the preaching of Peter the apostle turned to repentance the hearts of many from among those who said: “His blood be upon us and upon our children.” On a single day, “almost three thousand” Jews “were baptized,” and all were made “one in heart and soul,” prepared now to die for him, the one for whom they had demanded crucifixion.

  • Cyril of Jerusalem, Catecheses ad illuminandos 12-18Lecture 13[61]

21. The beginning of signs under Moses was blood and water; and the last of all Jesus’ signs was the same. First, Moses changed the river into blood; and Jesus at the last gave forth from His side water with blood. This was perhaps on account of the two speeches, his who judged Him, and theirs who cried out against Him; or because of the believers and the unbelievers. For Pilate said, I am innocent and washed his hands in water; they who cried out against Him said, His blood be upon us: there came therefore these two out of His side; the water, perhaps, for him who judged Him; but for them that shouted against Him the blood.

  • Cyril of Jerusalem, Epistula de aedificando templo. [62]

12. This event took place on Monday at the third hour, and partly at the ninth hour of the night. There was great loss of life here. (It was) on 19 Iyyar of the year 674 of the kingdom of Alexander the Greek. This year the pagan Julian died, and it was he who especially incited the Jews to rebuild the Temple, since he favoured them because they had crucified Christ. Justice overtook this rebel at his death in enemy territory, and in this the sign of the power of the cross was revealed, because he had denied Him who had been hung upon it for the salvation and life of all.

  • Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarius in xii prophetas minores.  Not in BiblIndex: info from TLG search. Four references.[63] Discussed here and here.  References are to Pusey edition.

Vol. 1, p.530, l.13: And the wretched crowd of the Jews has endured this, who transferred his righteous blood upon their own heads. For when they were persuading Pilate to crucify Christ, they said, ‘His blood be upon us and upon our children!’ Accordingly, they all perished with their whole households and their cities were plundered together with their men, so that no one was able to escape. As regards the sort and number of the things that they have suffered, the long history books of those who have written about such matters sing of them.[64]

Vol.2, p.232, l.9: Again he addresses Zion, or the holy city—I mean Jerusalem—in which he also promises will be left the gentle and lowly people. Though in fact the synagogue of the Jews had raged against Christ the Savior of all, and had turned murderer of the Lord, and of it he requires an account, yet not all perished; the remnant was preserved and the survivors saved, a great number of them coming to faith. (232) These were the gentle, not venting on Christ their rage like a bull, like of course those who at that time brought him before Pilate, crying out in the words, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him,” and adding to this the cry, “If you do not kill him, you are no friend of Caesar’s.” In fact, what could be more cruel than such people, and more fierce than their anger? They brought innocent blood upon their own heads in saying without a thought, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”

Vol.2, p.324, l.22: You see, they killed the holy prophets, and like hunters they assailed those sent at various times, abusing some, maltreating others, killing still others. God was still tolerant, however; the victims were servants and fellow slaves of those who committed the murders. Since in their unrestrained assaults they went to extremes, and contemplated such an unholy outrage as audaciously to do violence to the Son himself, and fell into the pit by crucifixion, he no longer forgave their unbridled sin. He sought out the offenders and submitted them to punishment, decreeing the destruction of the whole of Judea on one day when they paraded him before Pilate and cried, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  Even if the effects of divine wrath did not immediately befall them, even if the penalty was not sought without delay, nevertheless the just sentence from God took effect on them, destruction gripping the land of the Jews, as I said.

Vol. 2, p.454, l.12:  Now, the Jews, miserable though they were and needing to voice their criticism of the hired shepherds, did not do so; rather, the good shepherd, who laid down his own life as a ransom for all, they abused in countless ways, stoned, reproached, and in the end opened their mouth wide against him, crying out along with their leaders in demanding from Pilate, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him,” and actually bringing down his righteous blood on their own heads in the words, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.” Hence I shall no longer spare the inhabitants of the earth, the text says: they no longer deserved pity from God; instead, each person was delivered into the hands of their neighbor and into the hands of their king or ruler. In fact, they crucified Emmanuel, and became murderers of the Lord, completely sacrilegious. But God called them to repentance, and did not immediately inflict on them the effects of His wrath. After the lapse of thirty years from the crucifixion of the Savior, however, peace departed from the country of the Jews; there were enemies everywhere, city invading city, people in each one divided among themselves and fighting with one another, the result being that they found themselves in equal trouble from one another as befell them from the enemy. The bold Roman generals were in control of the land of the Jews, burning cities along with inhabitants, (455) and subjecting the country to the yoke of slavery. Those capable of fleeing dwelt in the lands of the nations, which is still the case today.

  • Cyril of Alexandria, Festal Letters/Homilies.  Not in BiblIndex. From TLG, which uses PG77.[65]

Letter 10, chapter 5.[66]But the relentlessly hard-hearted Jewish people, who look only toward what is inane and are infected by a bestial madness, did not reckon that they ought to welcome him whom the Law and die prophets had announced would come and would save our entire race; the wretches fell instead to such a depth of insanity that they senselessly ridiculed him when he taught them and expounded doctrine which is above the Law. They thought his teaching, so venerable and valuable, worth nothing, and hurled the most absurd abuse at him, not hesitating to call him a glutton, a drunkard, and a Samaritan; decline to repeat what was even more hurtful. That is why the voice of the holy prophets laments this people, found to be so fearfully insolent: “The house of Israel has fallen, and there is no one to raise it up; the virgin of Israel has fallen upon her land, and there is no one to raise her up.”” For the synagogue of the Jews has been uprooted from its very foundations, as it were, having recklessly squandered the Savior’s supreme forbearance. For the Jewish people and their leaders somehow thought that their impiety toward the prophets was in no way reprehensible. That is why, having no fear of raising their irreligious hand against him as well, they condemned Christ, and the wretches departed from eternal life through this insane behavior. One of the prophets indeed says of them, “Woe to them! for they have departed from me; they are wretched, for they have acted impiously toward me. Yet I redeemed them, but they spoke falsehoods against me.” Cruelly did they repay him, returning evil for good, as is written: not only did they speak falsehoods, but, adding to their original impieties that crime which is greater than all the others, they spoke to each other about Christ those words which are of course written in the Gospels: “This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.” Then, canying our their most odious plan, and taking Satan as their collaborator in the deed, or rather as their leader and commander; they bought the most venal of the disciples for a few silver pieces. For concerning such folk the divine word says somewhere, “May they be erased from the book of the living, and may they not be enrolled with the just!” But why extend my discourse about matters so plain to view? For everyone knows the audacious deeds of the irreligious Jews. The wretches handed over for crucifixion the Master of all, inscribing the charge of impiety upon their own heads, and upon the whole race. For in their madness they dared to say, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.” Not only that, but, looking at him nailed to the precious cross, they had the supreme insolence to deride him, and were persuaded by their own father, I mean Satan, to say, “If you are God’s Son, come down now from the cross, and we will believe you. But the Lord Jesus Christ, seeing that the death which had long tyrannized over us was already trembling and falling (for it was to be completely destroyed by the death of the holy flesh), took no account of the reproaches of the Jews.[67]

  • Cyril of Alexandria, Expositio in Psalmos (Interpretation of the Psalms). Not in Biblindex. TLG.[69]  Probably spurious.

On Ps.3:7: “You have shattered the teeth of the wicked”:  The expression “You have shattered the teeth” is said as if of wild beasts, for those who rejoice in sin are commonly bloodthirty and grind theor teeth at the good reputation of the saints.  It is a custom of the inspired scripture to compare with beasts men who plan to abuse others.  And so it is said, “You have shattered the teeth” about all those whom you have ground down with power; taking a metaphor from the beasts who carry things away in their teeth, they are really contemptible and stupid.  But also the Saviour said to his Father, “You have struck Herod the infant-killer, who was angry with me without cause; you will also strike the Jews, handing them over to the Romans, and you will shatter their teeth, because they said, “We have no king [but Caesar]” and “His blood be upon us [and upon our children]”.  The demons also have been struck by the Lord, because without being harmed by us, they lie in wait for us out of malice. ….

  • Cyril of Alexandria, Glaphyra in Pentateuchum (Elegant Comments on the Five Books of Moses).  Not in BiblIndex.  In TLG [70]

From On Genesis. Context here.[71]  For everywhere they [the Jews] live, as strangers and foreigners, and fearful, and that which is right for free-born men, without liberty.  Now Cain received the sign so that they might not kill him.  For not all Israel was ruined.  But the rest were made saved, as the prophet said, who understood this and prophesied, saying “If the Lord of the Sabbath had not left us a seed, we would have been like Sodom and Gomorrha.”  … The same thing happened to the Israelites, to whom it was spoken by the voice of the prophet, “When you stretch out your hands to me, I will turn my eyes away from you; and if you multiply your prayers, I will not hear you.  For your hands are full of blood.”   For they killed the Lord of all, and in their extreme impiety dared to say, “His blood be upon us and our children.”  The blood of Abel cried out only against his single killer.  But the precious blood of Christ cried out so greatly against the cruelty and inhumanity of the Jews, for he freed the world from sin, for he was poured out for it.  For this reason the divine Paul says, “”we come near, we who are justified by faith, by the shedding of the blood which is called better than the blood of Abel.”

From book 7 on Genesis.  Context here.[72]  Although each of these may be said to be complete in its own time, nevertheless we now remind and repeat this.  You understand that some were freed by their own covenant from the accusation of shedding blood through the [sacrifice of a] calf, which represents Emmanuel.  For it is right, I think, that they, when they justify themselves, speak thus: “Our hands have not shed this blood.”  Of course you will discover that the people of the Jews never said this, but in fact instead, after sacrificing the calf, they dared to say further, “Our hands have shed this blood.”  This is the same as what they ignorantly said concerning Christ, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”

On Deuteronomy 21. Context here.[73]  For the baptized are cleansed through his death: for this, I think, is because the hands may be cleansed by him.  Obviously by confessing that they are partakers in the impiety of the Jews, they obtain remission.  For the Jews, maddened against Christ, brought condemnation on their own heads, saying, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  But they were hoping for grace from him, and they sought the cleansing of holy baptism, by which they understood that he would honour them, did not say so much, saying, “Our hands did not shed this blood.”  In Christ, therefore, there is purification.  And if anyone from among the Jews would like to understand rightly, what the divine disciples indeed did before others, and who they believed through these things, it will be established for them without any undeserved obscurity; then also they themselves may be honoured and chosen, avoiding indeed the impiety of Israel, and joining themselves to Christ…

  • Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarius in Isaiam prophetam (Commentary on Isaiah), chapter 1:21 and 40:29-31. Not in BiblIndex. [74]

On 1:21.  … They brought upon their own head the precious blood of Christ, remember, in saying to Pilate, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.” They also did away with holy prophets; blessed Stephen reproached them with this….

On 40:29-31. ….Grief of a godly kind, you see, brings about repentance that leads to salvation which requires no repenting, or brings grief to those who crucified Jesus, and even perhaps rejoiced in it (the leaders of the Jews were so disposed, remember, and all who were so presumptuous as to say, “His blood be upon us and upon our children”), causing them to be involved in the misfortunes and evils of war.

  • Procopius of Gaza, Catena in Esaiam (Catena on Isaiah). [75]

Col. 1857: And it [Jerusalem] is called a prostitute, on account of the fornications of the inhabitants; whom likewise he calls murderers.  For finally after shedding the blood of Christ, they are bold enough to say, “His blood be upon us.”  But indeed they had not even spared the prophets themselves previously.  For it says, “Jerusalem, Jerusalem, who kill the prophets.”  Stephen upbraids the Jews, “For which of the prophets did your fathers not kill?”  But in those times it was more appropriate, in which the Saviour came among us; whence he was accustomed to call them also a wicked and  adulterous generation.  And so, in his time, Isaiah accuses them, not now of idolatries, but of violence and murder.  And since, after being so bold in the crime against the Lord, they wished to be considered as masters of piety.

Col. 2352: The law itself shows the weakness of man, not justifying them but condemning them, whom Christ has justified by grace.  For He is the one who, although he does not hunger, grants spiritual power to those who hunger after justice.  And he makes the destitute, drowned in feeling grief, understand the vindication of the sinners.  For he is used to the grief that leads to salvation, which is according to God, so that penitence may be done in a way requiring least penitence; in fact he even understands the grief, which those who shouted “His blood be upon us and our children” felt at the capture of the city [of Jerusalem].  For with spiritual food the destitute have escaped illness, although they earlier exceeded in power, when on account of their weakness, the nations were being trampled by the feet of the devil; …

Col. 2600: He [Isaiah] speaks here in the manner of Jeremiah: …   and so on.  By whom, so to speak from little beginnings of wickedness, they went on to the murder of Christ the Saviour, which especially in this place it is reasonable to include.  For although from the blood of the Saviour their hands were unpolluted, they were not at all free from blame; those who demanded that blame for his blood be placed upon themselves and their children; those who attacked him with abuse, and stirred up the people against him, those who said he was mad, those who said he was a Samaritan, those who said he was born from adultery, those who said he drove out demons by the name of Beelzebub; they never ceased to accuse.

  • Procopius of Gaza, Commentarii in Octateuchum. [76]  Context here.

Col. 252: Some here infer an allegorical sense.  They say that Cain was a type of the Jews, who seeing Christ, who is meant under the name of Abel, eager to be carried to his murder, crying, “Why do you seek to kill a man who has told you the truth?”  Of these it is testified that the father was Cain, whom Satan calls upon, … The rest [of the Jews], so that they are not completely destroyed, have been marked with a sign.  The remnant of them are preserved to testify to the truth of scripture.  They have gone out also, like Cain, from the sight of God. And the divine power speaks thus to us, saying, “When you multiply your prayers, I will not hear you, for your hands are full of blood.” For they killed the Lord and author of life.  In addition they shouted, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  But this sacred blood, shed for us, cries out against the Jews, and according to the eloquence of Paul, better than the blood of Abel.

Col. 491: Nor was it held back by its weakest part.  While the Jews were fleeing the limits of their homeland and were dispersed in Israel, God was sifting the gentiles who lacked his enlightenment.  In fact we can say this about those who assailed the knees of the bull [=Christ], not about all of them.  For we can say about them, that they didn’t make themselves companions in this most awful but necessary murder, as it is read in Deuteronomy, “Our hands are not covered with this blood, nor did our eyes see it.”  God orders that those who have not committed murder must say these words, washing their hands in the valley above a slaughtered cow: i.e. those who are near the town within whose boundaries the murder was committed and near where the body was found.  The others [commentators] suppose that this cow is a type of Christ.  To this statement the Jews emit a contrary statement, clamouring, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  But Moses withdrew the curse from the Levites, when they took up arms with the Rephidim on account of the dereliction of the people and the making of the [golden] calf, and did not spare brothers or sons.  This curse, which they needed to be dispersed, was converted into a blessing, and the Levites accepted offerings from the other tribes of the city: in which they lived as strangers and pilgrims.  Not otherwise do perfect Christians and true worshippers of the divinity abide in this world.

Col. 919: And as God illustrated the dignity of the laws of this prophet, he says, “Whoever will not hear what was said in my name by the prophet, I shall lay a penalty on him,” in the same way a penalty was taken from this people on account of the blood which was shed from Abel to Zachariah, and last of all, of Christ himself, whose blood they had blamed on their heads and those of their children, and still they receive the penalty of that impiety.

Col. 923:  Indeed far away they recede from the impiety of the Jews, in that city in which He was wounded and tortured, found far away by a strong order, they submit however first in a rustic church, and at that instant wash their hands in Christ himself, stained with his blood.  And they certainly receive remission of sins, hiding themselves no part of the impiety of the Jews who said, “His blood be upon us and upon our children”.  Thereafter, purged by baptism, they say, “Our hands have not shed hus blood.”  And although they were from the Jews, they have renounced however all community with them.

Acts 4:10

Ante-Nicene

There are only two references given by BiblIndex for this period, both seemingly spurious.  I have not done a TLG search nor a CETEDOC search as yet.

  • Origen, Contra Celsum, “SC 132, 136, 147, 150, 227. p.308, l.27”.  Spurious. Biblindex does not specify the volume of the SC edition; the index of that edition doesn’t reference Acts 4:10 for any volume and no reference is given in Chadwick’s translation.
  • Eusebius, Commentarii in Esaiam. (Commentary on Isaiah) II. 28 (on Is.45:10-13). Spurious. [77]

Post-Nicene

  • Athanasius, De sententia Dionysii (On the opinion of Dionysius), Here[78]

But if they accuse the blessed man [Dionysius] (for the arguments of the Arians about him are in fact accusations against him) simply for writing thus, what will they do when they hear even the great and blessed Apostles in the Acts, firstly Peter saying (Acts ii. 22), `Ye men of Israel hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God unto us by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by Him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves know: Him, being delivered up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye by the hand of lawless men did crucify and slay;’ and again (ib. iv. 10), `In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Whom ye crucified, Whom God raised from the dead, even in Him doth this man stand here before you whole;’ and Paul, relating (ib. xiii. 22) in Antioch of Pisidia how God,`when He had removed Saul, raised up David to be king;…

  • Epiphanius, Ancoratus, ch. 41. [79] Arguments about whether Christ was divine or just a man.

41.  (1) Again they [the Arians] strive after other vain notions, mixing them with the divine words and thinking contrarily, and they say: so how has it been written, “accept that the high priest of our con­fession was faithful to the one who made him,” and “let it be known to you, all the house of Israel, that this Jesus, whom you crucified, God made him Lord and Christ” (2) And a great wonder comes upon me, how those who possess the orderings [of Scripture] are ignorant of the meaning being declared in them. For the saying, “Accept that the high priest was faithful to the one who made him,” has not been said concerning the divinity.

  • Chrysostom, In Acta apostolorum homiliae 1-55 (55 Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles). [80]

Homily 10. C.2. … What then says Peter? “Ye rulers of the people, and elders of Israel.” Mark the Christian wisdom of the man; how full of confidence it is: he utters not a word of insult, but says with respect… “By what means this man is made whole: be it known unto you all, and to all the people Israel; that by the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth:” – this is what would vex them most. For this was that which Christ had told the disciples, “What ye hear in the ear that preach ye upon the housetops. – That in the name of Jesus Christ,” he says, “of Nazareth, Whom ye crucified, Whom God raised from the dead, even by Him doth this man stand here before you whole.” (v. 10). (Matt. x. 27.) Think not, he says, that we conceal the country, or the nature of the death. “Whom ye crucified, Whom God raised from the dead, even by Him doth this man stand before you whole.”

10, 3. … Do you observe too (in point of rhetoric) with what dignity they express themselves? Even in the use of words they were becoming expert by practice, and henceforth they were not to be beaten down. “Be it known unto you all,” etc. (v. 10.) Whereby he shows them that they rather do, in spite of themselves, preach Christ; themselves extol the doctrine, by their examining and questioning. O exceeding boldness – “Whom ye crucified! Whom God raised up” – this is bolder still! Think not that we hide what there is to be ashamed of.

  • Ambrose, Expositio de Psalmo CXVIII. (Exposition of Psalm 118)  [81]  The Jews are not mentioned.

On Ps. 118:23. (“Though rulers sit together and slander me, your servant will meditate on your decrees.”)  42.  And likewise it says, “Although rulers sit together and slander me”.  The voice of the martyrs is, who led before the justice of the persecutors, when asked to sacrifice to idols and steadfastly resist, … 43. And then Peter with the rest of the apostles was remanded in custody, and on the next day standing constantly before the council he said, [And then Acts 4 is quoted at length]

And that is all that are known to me.

UPDATE: Almost done: awaiting library loans for the last few.

  1. [1]On the Passover – Melito of Sardis – Kerux 4:1 (May 1989) http://www.kerux.com/doc/0401A1.asp
  2. [2]KROYMANN Aem., CCL 2 (1954), 1339-1396. § 18 (p.1364, l.144)
  3. [3]KROYMANN Aem., CCL 1 (1954), 441-726. § 3 (p.492, l.25)
  4. [4]DIERCKS G.F., CCL 4 (1972), 265-278., § 5 (p.269, l.20).  Quasten says that this is ANF 5, 219, the “Expository treatise against the Jews”, attributed to Hippolytus.
  5. [5]homilia: 3, par.: 5, pag.: 307, linea: 4. Nam apud illos, qui dixerunt: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, Christi sanguis in condemnationem est.
  6. [6]homilia: 26, par.: 3, pag.: 462, linea: 9. Venit et nunc verus pontifex meus Dominus et intercessit medius inter morientes et vivos, id est inter eos, qui ex Iudaeis suam praesentiam susceperunt, et inter eos, qui non solum non susceperunt, sed semet ipsos magis quam illum occiderunt dicentes: sanguis illius super nos et super filios nostros! Unde et omnis sanguis iustus, qui effusus est super terram a sanguine Abel iusti usque ad sanguinem Zachariae quem interfecerunt inter aedem et altare, requiretur a generatione illa, quae dixit: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.
  7. [7]Klostermann, GCS 40, p.331.  An ANF translation exists.
  8. [8]GCS 38, Origenes Werke XI, 1933, p.258-60, translated by me here.
  9. [9]Given slightly less literally by Raymond E. Brown in The Death of the Messiah (1994), vol. 1, p.384, as “Therefore the blood of Jesus came not only upon those who existed at that time but also upon all generations of Jews who would follow afterwards until the endtime.”
  10. [10]NAUTIN P., SC 27 (1950)., (p.151, l.19), who was the first editor.  An article on the text here.  Translation from the French by me.
  11. [11]BRANDT S., CSEL 19 (1890), 1-672. § 25 (p.585, l.24)
  12. [12]CONNOLLY R.H., Didascalia apostolorum…, Oxford 1929., p.190, l.2
  13. [13]ZIEGLER J., GCS (1975).. § 29 (p.23, l.8) & § 48 (p.362, l.20).  TLG: {2018.019} Book 1 section 29* line 12: κατὰ τοῦ κυρίου, ὁπηνίκα τὰς ἀσεβεῖς ἠφίεσαν φωνὰς λέγοντες· «αἶρε αἶρε αὐτόν», «τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν»· τότε γὰρ ἀληθῶς ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἐπιτηδεύματα κατὰ τοῦ κυρίου γέγονεν εἰς τὸ παραπικρά-.  English translation by Jonathan Armstrong in the “Ancient Christian Texts” series from IVP Academic (2013), p.17 and p. 284.
  14. [14]PG 23 (1857), passim 76-1393. (cols.208, 209, 313, 480, 541, 545, 744, 857). 208-209; “Vers. 12-14. Quoniam tribulatio proxima est, quoniam non est qui adjuvet. Circumdederunt me vituli multi, tauri pingues, obsederunt me. Nequaquam a vero aberraveris, si tauros pingues, principes Judaici populi; sive principes sacerdotum, scribas et seniores significare dixeris. Hujusce rei mentio habetur in sexagesimo septimo psalmo bis verbis : Increpa feras arundinis : congregatio taurorum in vaccis populorum. Hic porro populos, vaccas, populi duces, tauros nuncupavit. In praesenti item psalmo, illius loco. Circumdederunt me vituli multi, Symmachus sic habet, Juvenci tauri pingues saginati, circumplexi sunt me, inquit, et circumdederunt me; secundum Aquilam vero, Potentes Basan in spectaculum traduxerunt me; queis adumbratur militaris Pilati manus, Basan nuncupata, quae coronam spineam complicatam, diadematis loco, capiti ejus imposuit. Aperuerunt super eum os suum, sicut leo rapiens et rugiens, clamantes, Tolle, tolle, crucifige eum. Sanguis ejus super nos et super liberos nostros.  Aquila vero, Sicut leo, inquit, capiens et rugiens; Symmachus, Sicut leo venans rugiensque. Nam qui sanguinem sitiebant, suosque liberos Salvatoris sanguine reos esse procurabant, a leone rugiente nihil differebant.” “Et sane cujusmodi voces ad Pontium Pilatum totus Judaeorum populus contra eum ediderit, narrant Evangelia. Quod item in vicesimo primo psalmo declarabat dicens:…” 13. “Et mirari subit praedictionis sancti Spiritus accurationem. Quia enim tempore Salvatoris nostri, non Judaei ipsi mortem intulerunt, sed Romanorum manu id peractum est, judicium Pilato ferente, militibus comprehendentibus et abducentibus eum, et a Judaeis nihil eorum actum est; jure illis non ipsum necis actum ascribit, sed causam.  Principes namque Judaeorum concilium ineuntes, nullam non machinam moverunt, ut eum perderent; falsi testes autem et sycophantae, eorum gratiam aucupantes, in conspectu Salvatoris steterunt ; totusque populus vocibus labiisque suis sanguinem ejus super se et super filios suos expetierunt : jure ergo non necis facinus, quam decrevit Pilatus, perpetrarunt milites ejus, memorat; sed principum sacerdotum conspirationem, sycophantarum testimonium, contra ipsum acclamantis multitudinis vocem.” 744 and 857 do not appear to have relevant material.  Hasty translations by me from Migne’s Latin.
  15. [15]J.B. Pitra, Analecta sacra, vol. 3, Venetiis 1883.  Online here, PDF p.427. passim 204-515. P.415, l.5: ‘Prophetico nomine David futura intuens, duo agmina hoc sermone proponit: ab uno quidem orat ut liberetur, in alterius autem honorem cooptetur. Quum vero manifeste declaret eos cum quibus deprecatur cooptari, esse gentes, his verbis : “Constitues me caput gentium”, palam est alteram classem, de qua orat eripi, aliam non esse quam gentem circumcisam. Ab hujusce enim designati populi, postulat eximi contradictionibus. Atende hic quomodo non increpet idolorum superstitionem, neque caetera flagitia et inique gesta, sed contradictiones. Interea considera prophetico instinctu illa proferri adversus Israelis antilogiam, quae contra Salvatorem facta est, quam totus prae se populus tulit in tempore quo Christus passus est, quando concionem habente Pilato: «Quem vultis vobis dimittam ex duobus, Barabbam, an Jesum qui Chri­stus?» rogaverunt dimitti Barabbam, Jesum autem pessumdari, ac vehemen­ter clamabant et vociferabantur, illorum contradictionem suam ostentantes, quan­do etiam dicente Pilato: «Innocens sum a sanguine hujus. Vos videte!» respondens populus aiebat: «Sanguis ejus su­per nos et super filios nostros.» Quae igi­tur in eodem divino Spiritu David pro­spiciens, rogat eripi de populi contradic­tionibus, ne unquam anima sua, post mortem, connumeretur in hac adversus Deum impietate. Ideo dicebat: “Eripe me de contradictionibus populi”. Et progressus porro, rursus persequitur: “Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi. Filii alieni inveterati sunt, et claudicaverunt a semitis suis.”Filios quidem eos compellat, ob gene­ris successionem et semen Abrahae; alie­nos autem vocat ob morum indolem. Transiens autem ad alterum ordinem, luculentissime gentium vocationem in antecessam proclamat, ac fore ut ipsis gentibus etiam honor decernatur. Ait ergo … “Constitues me in caput gentium, populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi, in auditu auris obedivit mihi.” Quae oracula ita effectu et exitu im­pleta sunt, per efficaciam sacri Spiritus propheta procul prospiciente, ut fides vaticinio imponatur. Quis enim, si per universum orbem hominum, sive apud barbaros, sive apud Graecos, oculo lu­strat omnes populos, qui quacumque lin­gua et voce, sursum, deorsum, circum­ferunt memoriae commendatum Davidem, nomenque ejus honore prosequun­tur, qui ejus voces intonant per univer­sas Christi ecclesias: ecquis, si intuetur populum ex gentibus conflatum, Davidi nullo signo notum, officia servi prrostantem davidicis hymnis et canticis, repetitoque cantu audientem ac reciproco sonitu red hibentem psalmodias ab ipso a longis retro saeculis scripto mandatas, quis non hisce eloquiis veritatem asse­veraverit? Possunt autem eadem a Sal­vatore nostro dici, Davidis personam as­sumente, ut qui ab illius semine gene­ratus est, de quo innumera promissio­num copia ad eum facta est.’
  16. [16]Psalm 17:44-46 (Douay-Rheims 1899).
  17. [17]PG 24 (1857), 693-705., § 10 (p.705)
  18. [18]HEIKEL I.A., GCS 23 (1913), 2-496.  Here.   § 8 (p.393, l.6);   § 14 (p.430, l.6);   § 20 (p.460, l.16);  § 82 (p.487, l.4)
  19. [19]PG 22 (1857), 1021-1261; 1272-1273.  The reference is col.1073B.  This is Eclogae Propheticae book 1, chapter 15.  TLG gives {2018.023} and references the Gaisford edition (page 51 line 10): “ἀφεῖναι κατ’ αὐτοῦ τὴν σταύρου σταύρου αὐτὸν φωνὴν, αἶρε ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς τὸν τοιοῦτον· τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς (10) καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν· ὅπερ καὶ παραυτίκα γέγονε,…”;  “Et omnia quae corporaliter a Moyse facta narrantur, spiritali lege Salvator Dominusque noster perfecit. Venit ergo et nunc adhuc pervulgatus est apud Samaritanos et Judaeos, quem et Moyses praenuntiavit propheta, de quo Deus testimonium reddidit, dicens : «Qui autem verba ejus, quae loquetur in nomine meo, audire noluerit, ego ultor exsistam.” Ultus est ergo sanguinem omnium ab Abele usque ad Zachariam inter templum et altare interfectum; ultus est Salvaturis passionem praesertim in illos qui adversus eum exclamare audebant : «Crucifige, crucifige eum; tolle eum a terra: sanguis ejus super nos et super filios nostros. » Quod et protinus evenit, vindicante, ut praedixerat, Deo sanguinem Christi in illos illorumque pueros. Sic enim eos insequitur poena, ut abhinc usque ad praesens tempus gens omnis caput extollere minime potuerit, impleta et alia Amos prophetia dicente: « Domus Israel cecidit, et non adjiciet ut resurgat» Quae et Apostolus spiritu praevidens, praedicavit bis verbis : « Pervenit enim ira Dei super illos usque in finem.»”
  20. [20]HARRIS COWPER B., The Encomium of the Martyrs, The Journal of Sacred Literature, N.S. 6 (1865), 129-133. § 2 (p.132, l.21)
  21. [21]Commentarius in Euangelium Matthaei I-XIII. DOIGNON J., SC 254 (1978). § 6 (p.98, l.5); and Hilary, Commentarius in Evangelium Matthaei XIV-XXXIII. DOIGNON J., SC 258 (1979). § 1 (p.248, l.7) There is an English translation: Commentary on Matthew. St. Hilary of Poitiers Translated by D. H. Williams. Series: Fathers of the Church 125. (2012) pp. 46 and 287.
  22. [22]BRISSON J.P., SC 19 bis (1967), 72-162. § 7 p.90, l.17:  “Le sang d’Abel ainsi est reclame a celui qui, d’apres ce qui avait ete prefigure en Cain, a persecute les justes et a ete maudit par la terre qui, ouvrant sa bouche, a recueilli le sang de son frere. Dans le corps du Christ, en effet,en qui sont les Apotres et l’eglise, c’est le sang de tous les justes que leur race et leur posterite tout entiere a pris sur elle selon leurs propres cris : « Que son sang soit sur nous et sur nos fils!””
  23. [23]A. Zingerle, CSEL 22 (1891), “3-354 ; 544-870. § 12 (p.45, l.21 – on Psalm 2) & § 9 (p.103, l.24 – on Psalm 51)”.  On Ps. 2: “12. Sed uolens propheta sub personae distinctione significare patrem, qui, filio suo etiam in filio hominis consistente in terris, in illa sterna sua sede ac beata maneret et sine descensionis alicuius dispensatione requiesceret, ait: “qui habitat in caelis, inridebit eos, et dominus subsannabit eos”: ut per eum, qui inrideret habitans in caelo, intellegeretur et dominus, qui subsannaret e caelo, non differt autem subsannare et inridere; utrumque enim secundum uoluntatis adfectum officio oris efficitur, namque secundum intellegentiam nostram per corporales species diuinarum rerum sensus exponitur, ut subsannatio et risus in eludendis his, qui aduersus dominum et aduersus Christum eius conuenerant, nominaretur, non quod in incorporalem deum aut resolutio aut obductio oris incideret, sed ut ex naturae nostrae consuetudine nosceremus, quali in impios esset iudicio diuinae uoluntatis inlusum. subsannati igitur et inrisi sunt, nam qui testes falsos concinnauerant, qui proditionem mercati erant, qui super se ac filios suos sanguinem eius receperant, qui: “crucifige” clamauerant, qui: “descende de cruce, si filius dei es” dixerant, qui sepulchrum obsignauerant, qui resurrectionis silentium a militibus et famam furati corporis emerant, perdiderunt tantum impietatis suae laborem. deus est, quem cruci adfixerant: adernus est, cuius sepulchrum obsignauerant. inridotur impietas, dum ad inlieita nititur, dum inconcessa expetit, dum quod obtinuisse se sperat amittit, dum deum esse, quem tamquam hominem condemnat, agnoscit.”.  On Ps.51: “9. Sequitur enim: dilexisti malitiam super benignitatem. iniquitatem super quam loqui iustitiam. Doli huius crimen ex conparatione fit. Grauius, cum malitia diligitur bonitate neglecta, cum iniquitas agitur praetermisso sermone iustitiae. Hunc propensae in malitiam dilectionis adfectum dominus in euangeliis condemnat dicens: hoc est autem iudicium, quia lux uenit in hunc mundum et dilexerunt homines magis tenebras quam lumen, populus itaque, cui ad redemptionem peccatorum uerbum caro factum est et deus homo natus est, ut per fidei iustificationem maledicto legis liber esset, dum in transgressione legis mauult seruire maledicto, ipsum illum deum suum tradidit poenae, sanguinem eius, ut praetor esset innocens, in se ipse suscipiens, et haec agens demutat naturae consuetudinem, malitiam enim diligit super benignitatem et ex bonis amorem conuertit. In pessima diligere quoque iniustitiam super quam loqui iustitiam maluit.”
  24. [24]A. Souter (ed.), CSEL 50, (1908), 3-416. § 3. p.188, l.20. P.188:1. Audistis quae contestetur sacrosanctum euangelium dicente domino ad Iudaeos: nos de patre diabolo nati estis et desideria patris uestri uultis facere, ille homicida fuit ab initio et in ueritate non stetit, quia ueritas non est in illo, cum loquitur mendacium, ei suis propriis loquitur, quia mendax est, sicut et pater eius, nemo fidelium dubitet diabolum apostasiae suae auctorem non habere, ipse enim totius erroris est princeps, qui uidens a deo factum se non mediocris potentiae ausus est praesumere deitatem, ut, quia ceteros uidit inferiores, se ipsum praeferret ut deum, denique nomina, quibus appellatur diabolus et satanas, ab actu eius conposita sunt, non ex natura, omne enim malum opere probatur, ut non subsistentia in crimine sit, sed uoluntas concepta ex causis, dum enim se uidit ceteris potiorem, inflatus est ad exercendam dominationem.   2. Quo modo ergo patrem habere dicetur, qui auctor sceleris eius habeatur? aut unde probatur ab initio homicida fuisse? sed scriptura illum, qui eius fuerit imitator, nomine eius appellat, ut, quia ab opere nomen accepit, omnis qui malum opus fecerit non inmerito diabolus nominetur, saluator ergo hoc loco Cain diabolum appellauit, quia operum eius aemulum dum inuidet fratri, homicidium perpetranit exemplum relinquens crudelitatis parricidii; sicut et diabolus, dum inuidet homini facto ad imaginem dei, malignitatem operis sui cumulauit typum praebens errori, hinc itaque etiam mendax extitit Cain dicente sibi deo: ubi est Abel frater tuus? qui patris sui imbutus malitia in mendacium prorumpens: nescio, inquit, ut, cui uitam extorserat, ubi esset nescire se simularet sic furore caecatus, ut deo sic responderet quasi homini, quem putaret se posse celare. 3. Igitur huius imitatores facti Iudaei etiam ipsum dominum occiderunt, Cain potius fratricidam patrem uolentes habere quam deum, ut totius sanguinis effusi rei fierent, auctorem enim uitae perimentes totius sceleris principes extiterunt, ita ut huic malo etiam filios suos obligarent dicentes: Sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, ut enim Pilato suaderent nihil mali esse quod petebant, in filios suos retorqueri dixerunt, si esset inustum, quia, ut furori suo satis facerent, nec filiis suis parcere uoluerunt.  4. Nam quia diabolus non natura malus est, hinc facilius discitur, quia poena non promitteretur ei qui non fecerat quod nescierat, iniquum est enim punire eum qui non facit aliud….  I believe there may be an English translation somewhere.
  25. [25]{2035.061} PG 27, col. 397 line 27: σαμένων αὐτὰς εἰς τὰς ἑαυτῶν κεφαλὰς, διὰ τὸ εἰρηκέναι· Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν. Ὁ αἰὼν ἡμῶν εἰς φωτισμὸν τοῦ προσώπου.  Note that this work is assembled by Migne from a catena, is full of material not belonging to it, and is probably not authentic anyway.  Migne’s translation reads: “8. “Posuisti iniquitates nostras in conspectu tuo.” Non praetermisisti, inquit, iniquitates nostras, quippe cum nos ipsi eas in capita nostra revocaverimus, quia diximus: “Sanguis ejus super nos et super filios nostros. Saeculum nostrum in illuminatione vultus tui.” Ac si diceret : Vita nostra et ejus opera, mala videntur in conspectu tuo. Nihil quippe ignoras eorum quae in nobis acta sunt ab initio usque ad finem.”
  26. [26]TLG ref is {2040.075} PG 32 col 1240 line 4: “ρώσει, τῆς πατρικῆς μιαιφονίας κληρονόμοι ὑπάρχουσι. Τὸ γὰρ αἷμα αὐτοῦ, φησὶν, ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν.”  Migne: “Ejusmodi sunt Judaeorum preces; siquidem cum extendunt manus, admissum in unigenitum Filium scelus Deo et Patri revocant in memoriam, atque per singulas extensiones suas ipsorum manus sanguine Christi plenas ostendunt. Enimvero qui in sua caecitate perseverant, caedis paternae sunt haeredes. Sanguis enim ejus, inquiunt, super nos, et super filios nostros.”
  27. [27]There are 2 references.  The one in BibleIndex is “Chapter 1, sect. 27”.  This is PG 30, 117-668. col.192: “37. “Nam manus vestrae sanguine plenae”. Hoc est causae, quod Deus oculos avertat, cum extenderint manus, quod ipsa supplicationis symbola ad irritandum illum sint occasiones. Quemadmodum si quia dilectum alterius filium occiderit, ac manus suas adhuc ex caede cruentatas ad infensum sibi patrem exporrigat, dexteramque efflagitet amicitis, exposcatque veniam; nonne sanguis filii in ipsius interfectoris manu apparens patrem injuria affectum acrius exasperate? Nunc ejusmodi sunt Judaeorum preces; siquidem cum extendunt manus, admissum in Unigenitum Filium scelus Deo et Patri revocant in memoriam, atque per singulas extensiones suas ipsorum manus sanguine Christi plenas ostendunt. Enimvero qui in sua caecitate perseverant, caedis paternae sunt haeredes. “Sanguis enim ejus, inquiunt, super nos, et super filios nostros.””  The TLG search gives another: “P. Trevisan, San Basilio. Commento al profeta Isaia, 2 vols. Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale, 1939: 1:3-397; 2:3-575. Chapter 11, section 248″.  But this is inaccessible to me.
  28. [28]Orationes 38-41. MORESCHINI C., GALLAY P., SC 358 (1990). § 17, p.352, l.11: “17. Et puisque c’est «aux juifs les plus pieux habitant Jérusalem, aux Parthes, aux Médes et aux Élamites, aux Égyptiens et aux Libyens, aux Cretois et aux Arabes, aux Mesopotamiens et aux Cappadociens», mes compatriotes, que les langues s’adressaient, ainsi qu’aux juifs qui venaient «de toutes les nations qui sont sous le ciel», et qui – s’il plait a quelqu’un de penser ainsi – s’etaient reunis la, il y a lieu de voir qui ils etaient et de quelle captivite ils venaient. La captivite en Egypte et a Babylone etait limitee dans l’espace et avait depuis longtemps pris fin par le retour. Celle due aux Romains n’avait pas encore eu lieu, mais elle devait venir, etant une punition de l’audace des juifs contre le Sauveur. Il ne reste done qu’a songer a celle qui eut pour auteur Antiochus et qui n’etait pas anterieure de beaucoup a ces evenements. Si l’on n’accepte pas cette explication, si on la tient pour trop subtile car la captivite en question n’etait pas ancienne et il n’y avait pas eu dispersion en beaucoup de pays et si l’on cherche l’explication la plus convaincante, il vaut peut-etre mieux penser que souvent et par le fait de multiples ennemis le peuple avait ete chasse, comme le rapporte Esdras, et que certaines tribus avaient ete rendues a leur patrie, tandis que d’autres etaient restees au loin : ainsi, vraisemblablement, des individus appartenant a des tribus disseminees en maintes nations se trouvaient alors la et participaient au prodige.”
  29. [29]BERNARDI J., SC 309 (1983). § 68 (p.178, l.10): “Tu te fais persécuteur à la suite d’Hérode, traître à la suite de Judas, mais sans te pendre comme l’a fait celui-ci pour montrer son repentir? Tu te fais meurtrier du Christ à la suite de Pilate et ennemi de Dieu à la suite des Juifs?”
  30. [30]Orationes 6-19. PG 35, 721-1064. § 17 col.744; but also in SC 405, p.165: “Mais lorsque ces hommes commencerent a etre malades, s’emporterent les uns contre les autres et se diviserent en de nombreuses fractions, quand la croix les eut reduits a l’extremites, ainsi que leur folle temerite vis-a-vis de notre Dieu et Sauveur, puisqu’ils avaient ignore Dieu en l’homme, et lorsqu’ils attirerent sur eux la verge de fer qui les menacait de loin – je veux parler de cette autorité et de ce royaume qui domine actuellement – qu’arrive-t-il et quels sont leurs malheurs?”
  31. [31]In luciferam sanctam Domini resurrectionem. GEBHARDT E., Gregorii Nysseni opera, 9, Sermones, Leiden 1967, 315-319. p.317, l.3.  = (In Christi resurrectionem oratio V) [Sp.] (TLG 2017.018; PG 46.686 ; CPG 3177). PG translation: …sicut scriptum est : “Circumdederunt me tituli multi, tauri pingues obsederunt me. Aperuerunt super me os suum, sicut leo rapiens et rugiens”. Quando fuit inhonoratus? Cum canes latrarent; et Dominus patienter ferret; cum lupi diriperent, et ovis consisteret; cum latro vocaretur ad vitam, at vita mundi traheretur ad mortem; cum inconcinna et exitiosa voce clamarent: “Tolle , tolle, crucifige eum. Sanguis ipsius super nos et super filios nostros”. Domini caesores, prophetarum occisores, Dei hostes: Dei osores, in legem injurii, gratiae adversarii, alieni a fide parentum, patroni diaboli, progenies viperarum, susurrones, blaterones, mente involuta tenebris, fermentum Pharisaeorum, consessus daemonum. Facinorosi, deterrimi, lapidatores, honestatis osores. Atenim merito clamabant: “Tolle, tolle, crucifige eum.” Gravis enim ipsis erat divinitatis cum carne conversatio; et consuetudo reprehendendi, infesta erat: nam in morte positum est peccatoribus, odisse justorum coetum et successum.
  32. [32]Ed. M. Richard, Asterii sophistae commentariorum in Psalmos quae supersunt [Symbolae Osloenses fasc. suppl. 16. Oslo: Brogger, 1956]: 3-245.  Homily 21 (“Homily II on Ps. 11), section 14, line 9 (actually p.166 ll.24-26).  From the TLG {2061.001}.  Not in BiblIndex. καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ, οἱ δύο μάρτυρες τῶν κυριοκτόνων· τὸ αἷμα, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους ἐλέγξῃ εἰπόντας· Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν· τὸ ὕδωρ, ἵνα τοῦ Πιλάτου κατηγορήσῃ, ὅτι (10).  Author is actually Asterius the Homiletist, ca. 400 AD.  See this post for more context, and these posts and their comments for info on Asterius.
  33. [33]BLAKE R.P., DE VIS H., Epiphanius De gemmis, The Old Georgian version and the fragments of the Armenian version and the Coptic-Sahidic fragments (Studies and documents 2), London 1934, 99-193.  Here. P.163, l.13.
  34. [34]DOUTRELEAU L., SC 386 (1992). § 219 (p.340, l.2): “219. En effet, bien qu’ils se soient précipités dans la témérité au point de mettre à mort Celui qui avait été envoyé à cause d’eux, en disant : « Que son sang retombe sur nous et sur nos enfants», cependant, celui-là, Dieu l’a fait se relever de la terre, au sein de laquelle il était resté trois jours et trois nuits,  — en pasteur de ses brebis, puisque le texte poursuit ainsi : « qui fit sortir de la terre le pasteur des brebis».”
  35. [35]Edited by E. Muhlenberg, Psalmenkommentare aus der Katenenüberlieferung, vol. 2 (Patristische Texte und Studien 16), Berlin/New York 1977.   Fragment 583 (p.16, l.15); and Fragment 717 (p.81, l.27).  Fr.583 is also found in PG 39, (115-1622) col. 1409, on Ps.54.24: “Optat ut a Deo «qui est ante saecula» humilientur homines, qui eum non reverentur, et ii praesertim qui «testamentum Dei» contaminant. «Viros sanguinum» illos vocat qui dixerunt : «Sanguis ejus super nos et super filios nostros,» et super quos « Veniet omnis sanguis justus qui effusus est super terram.» Vocantur etiam viri «dolosi,» qui dolis suis Salvatorem et justos semper sunt insecuti. De istis igitur optat ne dimidient dies suos. Nam cum, rejecto illo die qui erat per ortum veri luminis instituendus, ipsi sibi alium diem illuminationis per falsas doctrinas excogitaverant, non decebat eos in istis dies suos peragere. Orat ergo ne dimidium dierum suorum perficiant, ut illucente sole justitiae, ad diem Domini perveniant.  Dices etiam, at verba Scripturae torquendo : Cum illi ad peccandum obstinati homines, si vitam retinerent, ad nova mala delaberentur parcens eis, orat ut medio in vitae curriculo decidant, atque ita de paucis non de multis peccatis puniantur. Quae cum ita se habeant, inquit, ego in te spero et confido, Domine.”  The middle part of Fr.717 is found in col.1456-7, on Ps.68:29: “Per allegoriam dicitur Jesus opprobrium et miseriam exspectavisse ut pro mundo passus, peccatum ipsius tolleret. Non fuit inter homines secundum carnem Israelitas vocatos, qui cum eo mori vellet; qua de causa contristatus est, animam tristem habens usque ad mortem. Nec fuit qui eum consolaretur, per prophetas de ipsius morte edoctus. Quin imo, fel et acetum fructus tulerunt : non servaverunt plantationem quam principio Deus plantavit, Judaicam « vitem fructiferam omnem veram; conversa autem in amaritudinem, vitis aliena facta es.» Habentur haec de inimicis ipsis quasi ratione destitutis. « Etenim ex vite Sodomorum vitis eorum, et palmes eorum ex Gomorrha ; uva eorum, uva fellis; botrus amaritudinis eis : furor draconum vinum eorum, et furor aspidum insanabilis.» Hoc felle uvae, et botro amaritudinis potaverunt eum, salutem ipsorum sitientem : nam corruptio vini acetum. [Non invenitur nisi in vocatione gentium qui simul contristaretur et consolaretur; dicunt itaque : « Si commortui sumus, et convivemus » et: Complantati mortis ejus facti, simul et resurrectionis erimus.»]” The section in [] is the PG text: it is given differently by Muhlenberg.
  36. [36]Cetedoc ref: “lib. : 7, epist. : 40, par. : 3, vol. : 82,2 , pag. : 37, linea : 28”
  37. [37]Cetedoc ref.: “lib. : 5, epist. : 21, par. : 8, vol. : 82,1 , pag. : 157, linea : 91”
  38. [38]Aduersus Iudaeos et Iudaezantes sermones 1-7 et in eos qui prima Pascha ieiunant homilia. PG 48,843-942., col.850, l.20; col.905, l.16.
  39. [39]DUMORTIER J., Saint Jean Chrysostome: Les cohabitations suspectes, p.53, l.23: “« Mais que nous importe, dit-on, nous ne sommes pas comptables de la sottise d’autrui, et si quelqu’un se scandalise sans raison, mérité-je aussi de payer pour la sottise de celui-là ? » Hé bien ! Paul ne tient pas ce langage: même si quelqu’un se scandalise à tort, par faiblesse il nous a prescrit de le secourir. Nous ne sommes libérés de la réparation fixée pour le scandale causé que dans le cas où il en résulte un profit plus considérable que le dommage occasionné par là, car dans le cas contraire et s’il n’y a que scandale pour autrui, qu’ils se scandalisent à tort ou à raison ou par faiblesse, leur sang retombe sur notre tête et nos mains désormais  ont à répondre devant Dieu de leurs âmes. Voilà bien pourquoi, de peur qu’en toute occurrence nous n’ayons souci ou au contraire mépris des victimes du scandale, le Christ nous a tracé ainsi des limites et fixé une règle, faisant tantôt ceci, tantôt cela selon les circonstances opportunes.”
  40. [40]Homilia dicta in templo s.Anastasiae (Novarum hom. 8), PG 63, 493-500., p.500, l.10: Judaei, qui in prophetarum sanguine innutriti erunt populus furens et rabie ductus, qui altaria de­struxerat, qui prophetas occiderat, qui in caedibus educatus fuerat, qui belluis ferocior erat, qui adhuc Dominici sanguinis stillas emittebat, qui ipsum cru­cifixerat: hic duobus apprehensis piscatoribus, illiteratis, idiotis, obscuris, mutis magis quam pisces, quorum alter ne ostiariae quidem minas simplices tulerat: hos, inquam, comprehensos in medio ha­bentes ligatos, nudos, non pecuniarum ope instructos, non corporea fortitudine, non sermonum eloquentia, non rhetorica vi, non generis splendore, non patriae magnitudine, piscatores ex piscatoribus, extrema paupertate laborantes, dubitant quomodo cum illis acturi sint, et dicunt, “Quid faciemus hominibus istis?” Viden quanta res sit virtus? quomodo tentationes confirmatio sint Evangelii? Dicunt ad eos: “Nonne praecipiendo praecepimus vobis ne loqueremini in nomine isto? Et vultis inducere super nos sanguinem hominis istius” (Act. 5. 28). Si homo est tantum, quid times? si vero Deus est, cur illum non adoras? Annon clamabas nuper, “Sanguis ejus super nos et super filios nostros” (Matth. 27. 2;i)? unde sanguinem times? quid mentem tuam exagitavit? nonne ligasti? nonne flagellasti? nonne crucifixisti? nonne mortuum vidisti ex cruce detractum? nonne sepultum vidisti, et terra opertum? nonne signa sepulcro imposuisti? nonne milites pretio emisti? nonne famam sparsisti quod discipuli ejus ipsum furati sint? Quid nunc times? cur ejus sanguinem formidas? Vides veritatem per omnia fulgentem? Quia enim videbant post illas insidias rem efferri, atque initia splendida esse et ipso sole lucidiora, et ab ipso cursus principio exhibita, quodque totum orbem comprehensura esset, utique errorem ad extrema depellendum esse, nec posse ejus vim ineffabilem sustinere; virtutem ejus timent, formidant vinctos, damnatos, flagellatos, insidiis circumdatos, duoseosque idiotas.
  41. [41]MIGNE J.-P., Sancti Joannis Chrysostomi Commentarius in sanctum Matthaeum evangelistam, PG 58 (1862)., p.769, l.50
  42. [42]PG 51, 65-112. col.110, l.37; col.111, l.1: “Vultis, inquiunt, inducere super nos sanguinem Hominis istius (lb. 5. 28 )? At enim si nudus homo est, cur ejus sanguinem pertimescis? quam multos prophetas occidisti, quam multos justos jugulasti, Judaeae, nec ullius illorum sanguinem reformidasti? cur igitur hic reformidas! Vere conscientiam terrebat illorum crucifixus, suamque formidinem cum occultare non possent, vel etiam inviti suam coram inimicis imbecillitatem fatentur. Ac dum illum quidem crucifigerent, clamabant dicentes, Sanguis ejus super nos, et super filios nostros (Matth. 27. 25); adeo sanguinem ejus spernebant. Post passionem autem cum effulgentem illius virtutem intuentur, pertimescunt et aestuant, dicuntque : Vultis inducere sanguinem hominis istius super nos ? At enim si seductor erat, et adversarius Dei, prout dicitis, scelesti Judaei, quam ob causam sanguinem ipsius timetis ? Etenim si talis erat, illius etiam fuerat caede gloriandum. Sed quoniam talis non erat, idcirco tremunt.”
  43. [43]TLG: {2062.415} = A. Wenger, “Le sermon LXXX de la collection augustinienne de Mai restitué à Sévérien de Gabala,” Augustinus Magister. Congrès international augustinien 1. Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1954: p.177-182.  There are two references. Section 16 line 7: στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν προσάγεις. Ὁ Πιλάτος φείδεται καὶ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· „Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν“. Εἴπωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς τὴν αὐτὴν φωνὴν, μὴ ἀπὸ τῆς αὐτῆς γνώμης· and “Section 17 line 2”: Εἴπωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς τὴν αὐτὴν φωνὴν, μὴ ἀπὸ τῆς αὐτῆς γνώμης·  „Τὸ αἷμα Χριστοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν“, ἐκείνοις εἰς κατάκρισιν ἡμῖν εἰς δικαιοσύνην. Οὐ γάρ ἐστι τὸ αἷμα Χριστοῦ χεῖρον τῆς Βαβυλωνίας.
  44. [44]MOEHLE A., Theodoret von Kyros Kommentar zu Jesaia, Mitteilungen des Septuaginta Unternehmens 5, Berlin 1932.  p.8, l.21; p.22, l.15; p.25, l.13.  Also SC274, p.171, On Isaiah 1:15: “15. Lorsque vous étendrez vos mains vers moi, je détournerai mes yeux de vous ; même si vous multipliez les prières, je ne vous écouterai pas : car vos mains sont pleines de sang. Après cet exposé détaillé qui concerne notamment l’abrogation de la Loi et la destruction du Temple, il a enseigné la nature du péché qui leur a valu de subir toutes sortes de châtiments. Il ne les accuse ni de rendre un culte aux idoles, ni de commettre l’adultère, ni de céder à la cupidité, mais de se souiller d’un meurtre : plus difficile à supporter que toute impiété et que toute iniquité fut leur acte de folie contre le Seigneur. Elle leur appartient en effet la parole : « Son sang sur nous et sur nos enfants. » Ce sang les a privés de l’heureux sort d’autrefois, ce sang a fait d’eux les métèques du monde.  Néanmoins dans sa bonté, il leur fait entrevoir le chemin du salut : 16. Lavez-vous, devenez purs.”  On Isaiah 4:4. “4. “Parce que le Seigneur lavera la souillure des fils et des filles de Sion et purifiera Jérusalem du sang jailli du milieu d’eux au souffle du jugement et au souffle de la brûlure.” Il fait, de nouveau, mention de sang et de purification ; par « sang », il entend celui qu’ils ont fait couler sur eux-mêmes et sur leurs enfants pour avoir crié : « Son sang sur nous et sur nos enfants », par « purification », il prédit celle que produit le bain de régénération. Or, cela s’accomplira, dit-il, « au souille du jugement et au souffle de la brûlure » ; car, tout comme on rend l’or de bon aloi en le fondant au feu, ceux qui reçoivent le baptême déposent le venin de leurs péchés. Le bienheureux Jean-Baptiste à son tour l’a dit : « Lui vous baptisera dans l’Esprit-Saint et dans le feu. »”  On Isaiah 5:7 (p.237): “Puis il explique ce qu’il vient de dire de manière figurée : 7. Eh bien ! le vignoble du Seigneur Sabaoth, c’esl la Maison d’Israël, et l’homme de Juda, c’esl son jeune plant bien-aimé. Il a mis en accusation toutes les tribus, car il appelle « Maison de Jacob » tous ceux qui sont issus de cet ancêtre. Quant à la tribu de Juda, en vertu du fait qu’elle détenait la Bénédiction de la Promesse et qu’elle avait le Temple pour ornement, il l’a nommée « jeune plant bien-aimé ». Puis il explique clairement ce que signifient la vendange et les épines : J’ai espéré qu’il produirait le droit, mais il a produit l’iniquité; au lieu de la justice, des cris. Ce passage permet de reconnaître clairement que c’est pour avoir exercé leur folie furieuse contre le Sauveur qu’ils ont été dépouillés de la grâce divine : c’est par les « cris » qu’il a fait voir cette folie. Or, le récit des saints Évangiles précisément apprend qu’ils vociféraient au plus haut point, tour à tour aux cris de : «A mort! à mort! crucifie-le! » et de « Son sang sur nous et sur nos enfants ! »” 
  45. [45]Biblindex gives the reference “PG 80, 857-1997. ?”  The columns are in fact 1308 and 1312.  A translation exists in the Fathers of the Church series, vol. 101, p.338, 340, which I use here.  Go here for a much longer except.
  46. [46](CPL 0227 + (M)) SL 24A, sermo : 76, linea : 96. Sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.
  47. [47]lib. : 3, cap. : 8, par. : 32, pag. : 310, linea : 1.  Et respondens uniuersus populus dixit: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.
  48. [48]SL 39, psalmus : 58, sermo : 1, par. : 5, linea : 2.  erant illi quidem uiri sanguinum, qui iustum occiderunt, in quo nullam culpam inuenerunt; erant illi uiri sanguinum, quia cum uellet alienigena lotis manibus dimittere christum, clamauerunt: crucifige, crucifige; erant uiri sanguinum, quibus cum iam obiceretur crimen sanguinis christi, responderunt, propinantes posteris suis: sanguis eius super nos, et super filios nostros.
  49. [49]SL 39, psalmus : 63, par. : 8, linea : 18.  et illi qui firmauerunt sermonem malignum, dixerunt: sanguis eius super nos, et super filios nostros! firmauerunt sibi sermonem malignum.
  50. [50]SL 40, psalmus : 108, par. : 20, linea : 2.  quamquam et Judas maledictionem dilexerit, et furando de loculis, et dominum uendendo atque tradendo; tamen apertius populus ille dilexit maledictionem, quando dixit: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.
  51. [51]Sermo : 229F, ed. : MiAg 1 (=MiAg 1 : Sancti Augustini Sermones post Maurinos reperti, éd. G. Morin, in: Miscellanea Agostiniana, vol. 1, Rome, 1930)  Eng. translation in “Sermons: On the liturgical seasons. (184-229Z)”., tr. Edmund Hill, John E. Rotelle, New City Press, 1993. pag. : 471, linea : 22.  multi enim ex ipsis, sicut legitur in actibus apostolorum, multi ex ipsis qui dominum crucifixerunt, qui sanguine eius effuso polluti sunt; multi ex ipsis qui dixerunt, sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, postea crediderunt annuntiantibus apostolis.
  52. [52]sermo : 234, ed. : PL 38, col. : 1116, linea : 44.  bibit enim quod ei parentes sui propinauerunt: sanguis eius super nos, et super filios nostros.
  53. [53]It looks as if the cetedoc uses the SC edition, as the line number matches.  pars : 1, cap. : 30, linea : 19.  Et Iudaei qui Pilato dixerant: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, dicunt apostolis: quid faciemus, viri fratres, monstrate nobis. Voyant ses frères, Joseph les reconnut, mais eux, ils ne le reconnurent pas (cf. ib., 8) : ce qui s’est également accompli dans notre Joseph que ses frères n’ont pas reconnu : « Car s’ils l’avaient reconnu, jamais ils n’auraient crucifié le Seigneur de gloire » (I Cor. 2, 8). Joseph se fit étranger à ses frères (cf. Gen. 42, 7) et leur dit par le truchement d’un interprète : « Vous êtes des espions, vous êtes venus reconnaître les pistes de ce pays » (Gen. 42, 9). Voici ce que notre Joseph, le Christ Seigneur, dit également par le truchement de Pierre à ses persécuteurs : « Vous avez renié le Saint et le Juste et vous avez fait mourir le prince de la vie éternelle » (Act. 3, 14-15). Les frères de Joseph se repentent de ce qu’ils avaient fait. A ceux-ci aussi, il est dit : « Repentez-vous » (ib., 19). Les frères de Joseph disent : « Nous sommes dans le péché à cause de ce que nous avons fait à notre frère » ; et Ruben leur répondit : « Ne vous ai-je pas dit : ne faites pas de mal à l’enfant? Mais vous ne m’avez pas écouté. Et voici qu’on vous demande compte de son sang » (Gen. 42, 21-22). De même les Juifs qui avaient dit à Pilate : « Que mon sang soit sur nous et sur nos fils » (Matth. 27, 25), disent aux apôtres : « Que devons-nous faire? frères, indiquez-le nous » (Act. 2,37). Pour qu’on crût qu’ils n’étaient pas des espions, les frères de Joseph affirment être douze fils d’un même père ; l’un n’était plus — c’était celui-là même à qui ils faisaient ce récit ! — un autre, le plus jeune, se trouvait avec leur père (cf. Gen. 42, 13).
  54. [54]GLORIE F., CCL 75A (1964), 769-950. p.876, l.372
  55. [55]Epistulae 121-130. LABOURT J., Saint Jérôme, Lettres, t. 7, Collections des Universités de France, Paris 1961. p.165, l.26.
  56. [56]Tr. Thomas Scheck. Fathers of the Church 117 (2008), p.312-313.  For a longer excerpt see here.
  57. [57]In Hieremiam prophetam libri VI. REITER S., CCL 74 (1960). § 2 (p.71, l.18) & § 3 (p.162, l.20) & § 3 (p.181, l.14).  Also in PL 24, 679-900.  An English translation by Michael Grant exists from IVP Academic, 2012, p.46,  105, 116.  The middle reference is translated by me.
  58. [58]Verona Manuscript 51 contains a mass of material, once attributed to Maximus of Turin, which is now thought to be by Maximinus the Arian.  Edited PL 57, col. 793 f.  Also a critical edition in an early JTS.  Cetedoc gives two results (fol. ms. : 13,1r, linea : 15 and 19), but they are one in the PL58, col. 800A:  De quo iam tunc in lege fuerat scriptum quod in sancto Evangelio completum esse dignoscitur, quando clamabatis dicentes: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros.  Sed nobis haec salubriter competit dicere: sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros,  vobis ad condemnationem, nobis vero ad salutem; quia alio vos proposito, alio nos dicimus intellectu; vos furendo, nos orando; vos insultando, nos suppliciter postulando; vos ex odio, nos ex amore; vos ut tristes, nos autem ut semper gaudentes.  Translation by me.
  59. [59]SL 138, tract. : 35, linea : 63.   Inmitem crudelium patrum tuorum solue sententiam, neque te eorum maledicto patiaris obstringi, qui clamantes de christo: Sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, facinus in te sui criminis transfuderunt.
  60. [60]SL 138A, tract. : 53, linea : 45.  Vobis enim dicentibus: Sanguis eius super nos et super filios nostros, merito hoc retributum est, ut quod uestri generis impia perdidit portio, hoc adsequatur fidelis gentium plenitudo.
  61. [61]RUPP J., S. Patris nostri Cyrilli Hierosolymorum archiepiscopi opera quae supersunt omnia, 2, Monaci 1860 (Hildesheim 1967), 2-342. § 21, p.78, l.19.
  62. [62]BROCK S.P., A letter attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem on the rebuilding of the Temple, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 40 (1977), 267-286. § 12 p.276, l.19.  JSTOR.
  63. [63]Text:P.E. Pusey, Sancti patris nostri Cyrilli archiepiscopi Alexandrini in xii prophetas, 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1868: 1:1-740; 2:1-626.  Volume 1; Volume 2. English translation: Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on the Twelve Prophets, FOC 116. Here.
  64. [64]This passage was omitted from the English translation in the FOC series, as I show here; translated by Bryson Sewell.
  65. [65]Epistulae paschales sive Homiliae paschales (epist. 1-30) {4090.032} J.-P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completus (series Graeca) (MPG) 77, Paris: Migne, 1857-1866: 401-981.  A FOC translation by Philip Amidon exists, Festal Letters 1-12, here.
  66. [66]FOC, p.193.  PG77 col 632 line 50: τὸ τῆς ἀσεβείας ἐπιγράψαντες ἔγκλημα. Τετολμήκασι γὰρ παραφρονοῦντες εἰπεῖν· «Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’  ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν.» Ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ τιμίῳ σταυρῷ προσηλωθέντα βλέποντες, κατεμειδίων.
  67. [68]
  68. [67]Originally I couldn’t see the last few words so made my version: “text pronounces, “Let them be deleted from the book of life, and not numbered with the just.”  But why dwell upon what took place before the eyes of all?  For who does not know the crime of the Jews?  Of course they handed over to the cross the Lord of all, putting it on their own unlucky heads and branding the mark of impiety on their whole race.  In fact they dared to say in their madness, “His blood be upon us and upon our children.”  They were both actually laughing to see the glorious one affixed to the cross, and, taught by their parent, Satan, I say, they were saying, “If you are the son of God, come down from the cross and we will believe you!”  But the death of Jesus Christ our Lord, … did not halt the abuse of the Jews.[68]Verum quid mihi de iis quae in oculis omnium posita sunt, tam longa oratio procedit? Etenim impiorum ausa Judaeorum quis ignoravit? Cruci scilicet omnium Dominum tradiderunt, suomet capiti infelices, atque universo generi notam impietatis murentes. Dicere siquidem ausi sunt delirantes : « Sanguis ejus sit super nos, et super filios nostros.” Quin et gloriosae cruci affixum spectantes audacissimi irridebant, et a parente suo, Satana inquam, edocti dicebant: «Si
  69. [69] TLG ref is {4090.100}.  Text from PG 69 col 732 line 18:  “αὐτοὺς παραδούς· καὶ τοὺς ὀδόντας αὐτῶν συντρίψεις, διότι εἶπον· «Οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα·» καὶ, «Τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς.» Πατάσσονται δὲ ὑπὸ Κυρίου καὶ οἱ δαίμονες, διότι μηδὲν παρ’ ἡμῶν ἀδικηθέντες, μά-”  The Migne preface states that this is material extracted from the Catena of Nicetas.  “Locutionem “Dentes contrivisti” tanquam de saevis belluis dixit: sanguinarii enim plerumque ii sunt qui peccatis delectantur, et contra sanctorum bonam famam dentibus strident. Mos autem inspirata Scripturae est feris comparare homines qui aliquibus crudeliter abuti meditantur. Itaque, Dentes contrivisti, pro, Omni eos vi spoliasti, dictum est; sumpta metaphora a feris, qua ablatis dentibus, contemptibiles admodum sunt et imbecillae. Dicet autem etiam Servator Patri suo : Tu percussisti Herodem infanticidam, sine causa mihi irascentem; percuties quoque Judaeos, Romanis illos tradens; dentesque eorum conteres, propterea quod dixerint: “Non habemus regem,” et, «Sanguis ejus super nos.” Percutiuntur a Domino etiam daemones, quia nulla re a nobis Iaesi, temere nobis ob malitiam suam insidiantur : et intellectuales ipsorum dentes, passiones, inquum, quibus simpliciores comedunt, conteruntur. Tu enim, inquit Psalmista, “capita contribulasti draconum in aquis” delitescentium : tu magnum cete resurrectione tua domuisti: tu inferos destruxisti, mortem calcasti, diabolum futilem reddidisti.  Et mecum, quaeso, observa, quomodo detrimentum ii demum perferunt qui injuriam faciunt; a Deo enim percutiuntur; ab allis autem laesi potius juvantur, quia salutem ab eo consequuntur.”
  70. [70]{4090.097}.  PG 69.
  71. [71]PG 69, col. 44 line 17.
  72. [72]PG 69, col. 349, line 29.
  73. [73]PG 69, col 649 line 17.
  74. [74]From TLG {4090.103}.  An English translation in 3 volumes exists by Robert C. Hill for Holy Cross Press, and lengthy quotes here.
  75. [75]BiblIndex gives ref: PG 87.2, 1817-2718. § 1 (p.857); § 2 (p.352); § 2 (p.600). These refs are wrong: see discussion here.
  76. [76]PG 87.1, 21-1220. (p.252); (p.491, l.46); (p.919); (p.923); § 1 (p.41).
  77. [77]BiblIndex gives the reference as J. Ziegler, GCS (1975). §28 (p.293, l.13).  But no such reference is indicated by Ziegler at that point.  The passage appears in p.228-9 of Armstrong’s English translation.
  78. [78]§ 7 (p.50, l.19) OPITZ H.-G., Athanasius Werke, 2,1, Berlin-Leipzig, 1935, 46-67.
  79. [79]HOLL K., GCS 25 (1915), 2-149 ; y compris les lettres de Matidius et Palladius. § 1. p.51, l.12.  Eng. tr. Fathers of the Church 128, p.121.  Preview.
  80. [80]BiblIndex gives the ref: PG 60 (1862) 13-384.  Col.86, l.30 (=Homily 10, 2); Col.88, l.36 (Hom 10, 3); Col.107, l.49 (Hom.13, 3).  I was unable to locate any reference to Acts 4:10 in Homily 13.
  81. [81]Text M. Petschenig, CSEL 62, 1913. § 43, p.64, l.20.

23 thoughts on ““His blood be upon us”: The use of Mt.27:25 and Acts 4:10 in patristic writers

  1. Thank you very much for your encouragement … it was almost too much for me, in truth. Interesting to come across some obscure works tho!

  2. I kind of think that in Matthew “Let his blood be upon us and our children” is Matthew’s way of granting the Jews forgiveness. Forgiveness comes from being washed in the blood. Christians are washed in the blood in baptism. So Matthew has the Jews washed in the blood by this exclamation.

  3. Hi Roger,
    I was wondering just how many manuscripts of John Chrysostom’s ‘Against the Jews’ were around. I have a feeling that they didn’t circulate too extensively.
    John Chrysostom was good at rhetoric and many of the things he says should be taken in that light. Anyway, much of what John says against the Jews was lifted straight from the Old Testament prophets.
    I would hardly use ‘hate’ to describe Byzantine Christianity. Again, it is easy to be deceived by Byzantine rhetoric. Sure there are examples of intolerence but when you compare the Byzantines to the medieval west or the Islamic East they come out pretty good.
    PS: keep up the good work. I love your efforts.

  4. Hi Stefano,

    I don’t know either, and I wish that I did. But I do know that, in general, manuscripts of Chrysostom’s sermons are so common that it is very difficult to draw up lists. On the other hand, only one manuscript preserves the majority of sermon 2 against the Jews.

    I think that there is real risk in selecting excerpts and losing the context. I do want to try to be fair to the authors. Rhetorical effect is certainly a factor in Chrysostom.

    Thank you for the kind words!

Leave a Reply