The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19j – Abbasids part 10

The decay of the Abbasid caliphate continues.  Egypt is almost an independent country; and the caliphate is also troubled by the Qarmatian revolt – a group of Shia fanatics who end up stealing the Black stone from Mecca. 

CALIPHATE OF AL-MUKTAFĪ BI’LLĀH (289-295/902-908).

1. The bay’ah was given to al-Muktafī, i.e. Abū Muhammad [‘Ali] b. Ahmad al-Mu’tadid, in Baghdad, on the same day that al-Mu’tadid died.  Al-Muktafi was in ar-Raqqah.  Letters and missives were sent to him to travel to Baghdad.  He went, and settled there.  His mother was Bakhtagiknah, and she was the daughter of al-Qāsim b. ‘Ubayd Allah b. Sulaymān b. Dhahb.  He named his secretary al-‘Abbās b. Al-Hasan al-Mādarāni, and restored things to order.

2. In the second year of the caliphate of al-Muktafī, in 290 [of the Hegira], the Nile of Egypt reached the height of thirteen cubits and two fingers.  The Muslims, Christians and Jews went out in procession, praying to God for rain, but the level of water remained as we mentioned, and the water continued to flow.  In the third year of al-Muktafi’s caliphate there was made patriarch of Antioch Elias.  He was a kātib.  He held office for twenty-eight years and died.  In the month of Rabī ‘al-ākhar, the town of Seleucia, in Byzantine territory, was conquered, and the loot was brought to Egypt in the month of Ragab of the year 290 [of the Hegira].  In the second year of the caliphate of al-Muktafi died Michael, patriarch of Alexandria, on Sunday, six days before the end of the month of Ramadan of the year 290 [of the Hegira], after having been patriarch for thirty-four years.  After him the see of Alexandria remained without a patriarch for four years.  In the fifth year of the caliphate of al-Muktafi, there was made patriarch of Alexandria Cristodulos, originally from Aleppo.  He was consecrated in Jerusalem on Holy Saturday, the 4th of the month of Nīsān, that is, the 7th of Barmūdah, 19th of the month of ğumādā al-ākhar.  Elias, the son of Mansūr, patriarch of Jerusalem, consecrated him and he went to Alexandria.  But the inhabitants of Alexandria said, “We will not accept him unless the prayer making him patriarch is repeated.”  The prayer of patriarchs was prayed over him on the 4th of Ramadan of the year 294 [of the Hegira].  He held office for twenty-six years and six months and died.  He was buried in the church of [Saint] Michael at Fustāt-Misr.  In the sixth year of al-Muktafi’s caliphate there was made patriarch of Jerusalem George, son of Da’ğān.  He held office for four years and eight months and died.

3. There arose in Syria a rebel called Ismā’il the Qarmatian[1].  In Damascus the governor, in the name of Khumārawayh b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn, was Tughğ b. Khaff al-Far’āni.  After several battles, Tughğ was put to flight at the hand of Ismā’īl the Qarmatian, and many of his men fell on the field.  Tughğ then wrote to Hārūn ibn Khumārawayh, informing him of the fact.  Hārūn sent a large army to him, all of which belonged to the men of the Tulūnids.  The battle between the army of Hārūn and the Qarmatian took place near a village called “Kenākir”, in the province of Damascus, in the area known as “al-Askafiyyah” in the month of Ragab of the year 289 [of the Hegira].  After a fierce battle, the Qarmatian was killed, and on both sides about twenty thousand men fell, while the others were fleeing.  The survivors of the forces of Hārūn went to Damascus and Tiberias, while those of the Qarmatian army headed to Homs.  Then Hārūn’s soldiers returned to Egypt, but part of them remained in Damascus with Badr, called al-Ğamāmi.  The Qarmatian had a brother named an-Nāgim.  He gathered the survivors of his brother’s forces, and formed an army by recruiting his own people, and began his rebellion in the area around Homs.  When al-Muktafi learned that the Egyptian hosts had been cut to pieces and decimated by the Qarmatian and that the Egyptian soldiers had been killed, he decided to occupy Egypt, and he sent Muhammad ibn Sulaymān at the head of his most illustrious commanders and with a huge army.  Al-Muktafi then went to ar-Raqqah and stopped there.  When he came to Homs, Muhammad ibn Sulayman put to flight the troops of the Qarmatian an-Nāgim and captured seven hundred of his men.  The Qarmatian escaped but he was caught in a place called “ad-Dāliyyah”.  Muhammad ibn Sulaymān brought him to al-Muktafī, at ar-Raqqah, along with the seven hundred men.  Al-Muktafi took him with him to Baghdad where, after torturing him for a long time, he had him decapitated on a scaffold, then hanged his body on a cross.  He then ordered the killing of the seven hundred men: some were decapitated on the scaffold and then crucified, others had their hands and feet cut off.

4. Al-Muktafi’s armies progressed with Muhammad ibn Sulaymān even to Damascus.  Badr al-Hammāmi, along with the soldiers who were with him, asked for a promise of safety from Muhammad ibn Sulaymān.  Muhammad ibn Sulayman then left for Palestine with the intent of invading Egypt.  Knowing that the soldiers and armies had him as their target, Hārūn ibn Khumārawayh went to a place called “al-‘Abbāsiyyah”, an Egyptian territory of the province of al-Hawf, and camped there with his commanders and many men, to wait for Muhammad ibn Sulayman and to fight against him.  Al-Muktafi’s ships followed the route to Tinnis and entered the province of Egypt.  The Greek Damian commanded the fleet.  Then some of Hārūn’s commanders[2] came to meet Damian in a village of al-Fustāt called “Tanūhah”.  The battle between the two sides was violent, but Hārūn’s officers went over to the other side and fled.

5. Shaybān ibn Muhammad b. Tūlūn, the uncle of Hārūn, attacked Hārūn ibn Khumārawayh and killed him, on Sunday 18th of the month of Safar of the year 292.  Shaybān b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn was the arbiter of the situation only for a few days.  For Hārūn’s officers wrote a letter to Muhammad ibn Sulaymān asking him to grant them protection.  Granting them what they asked, Muhammad ibn Sulaymān entered Misr without finding any opposition and no objection on Thursday, two days before the end of the month of Safar of the year 292.  Faced with this event, and seeing that Muhammad ibn Sulayman had already deployed his battle-ready soldiers in a place called “ar-Riyah” at the gate of the city of Misr, Shaybān and his brothers sought a guarantee of their lives and property .  This was granted, and Shaybān’s forces disbanded.  Muhammad ibn Sulayman ordered all the officers and secretaries of Hārūn who were with him to go to Baghdad.  They went to Baghdad, while Muhammad ibn Sulaymān stayed in Egypt for six months, and the scribes and the officers with them collected thousands of thousands of dinars.  Then he returned to Iraq, leaving Is’ān an-Nūshari in Egypt, after having stayed for six months and having collected from the provinces thousands of thousands of dinars destined for the sultan.  Al-Muktafi took Muhammad ibn Sulaymān and threw him into prison, demanding the restitution of the goods that he had collected in Egypt.

6. In Syria one of Hārūn’s officers, known under the name of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Khalīğ, one of those who remained with Muhammad ibn Sulaymān in Syria, rebelled, and, having gathered around him a multitude of men of every sort, had set up their seat in the city of ar-Ramlah.  Learning of this, Isa an-Nūshari joined with al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Mādarāni, called Abū Zaynūn, and the soldiers who were in Egypt and came out together to fight against Muhammad ibn Ali al-Khaliğ.  When they learned that he had a large number of men with him, they returned, together with the officers, to al-Fustāt.  From here they went down to al-Gizah, broke the two bridges then gave them to the flames, so that Muhammad ibn Ali al-Khalīğ could not reach them, and continued marching about, now to Alexandria, now to upper Egypt.  So the city of al-Fustāt remained without authority and without anyone [as governor].  The citizens protected themselves, and took care of each other for five days.

7. Muhammad ibn [Ali] al-Khalīg entered Misr on a Thursday, fourteen days before the end of the month of Dhū’l-qa’da of the year 292.  He stayed there for eight months, accumulating riches and strengthening his position.  Then the armies of al-Muktafī arrived, under the command of his freedman Fātik, and a group of officers.  Muhammad ibn Ali al-Khalīg came out against him, retreated on al-Fustāt with his men and engaged in a violent battle.  Muhammad ibn Ali was beaten and succeeded in returning to al-Fustāt, where he hid himself.  Fātik made his entry into al-Fustāt together with his officers.  The man with whom Muhammad bin Ali al-Khalīg was hiding went to Isā an-Nūshari and told him that he was with him.  He was arrested – it was the month of Rağab of the year 293 [of the Hegira] – and he carried him with him back to Irāq together with his men, his family, his officers and scribes, and those who had helped him.

8. Al-Muktafi died on Sunday 13th of the month of Dhū’l-qa’da of the year 295 [of the Hegira].  His caliphate lasted six years, nine months and two days.  His influential advisers and administrators of his affairs were his minister al-‘Abbās ibn al-Husayn and his freeman Fātik.

  1. [1]From what follows, the name of this rebel was actually Abū’l-Qāsim, as is clear from the battle in which Tughğ was defeated.  Eutychius has confused him with Ismā’īl, son of the 6th Imam Ga’far as-Sādiq (d. 765), from whom the Ismailites take their name.  The latter are easy to confuse with the Qarmatians. (Pirone).  The “Qarmata” or “Qarmatians” or “Qaramita” were a Shia group best known for taking the black stone from Mecca.
  2. [2]Perhaps “officers” would be a better word?

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19i – Abbasids part 9

The events of the Abbasid caliphs continue.  This reign is interesting for a curious storm that affected Egypt in 284 AH / 897 AD.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MU`TADID (279-289/892-902).

1. The bay’ah was given to al-Mu’tadid bi’llāh Abū’l-‘Abbās, i.e. Ahmad b. Abū Ahmad al-Muwaffaq bi’llāh b. Ga’far al-Mutawakkil ‘alā’llāh – his mother was an umm walad named Sirār.  The bay’ah was given to him on the same day that al-Mu’tamid died, eleven days before the end of the month of Rağab of the year 279 [of the Hegira].  The revolts ceased, the countries returned to order, the wars stopped, each rebel accepted peace, and prices fell sharply.

2. Al-Mu’tadid sent to ask Khumārawayh b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn to give him his daughter in marriage.  Khumārawayh consented, and sent her with great riches, slaves, and maidservants.  They made peace and order was restored.  Khumārawayh b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn left Egypt for Syria and stopped at Damascus.  He had built, outside Damascus, below the dayr Murrān, on the “Thawrah” River, a palace that used to be his residence.  Khumārawayh was killed in this palace that he built, near Damascus, on Sunday night, three days before the end of the month of dhū’l-qa’da of the year 282 [of the Hegira].  His servants, Zāhir, Sābūr, Lu’lu ‘, Natīf, Shafi` ash-Sharābi and Ghanā’im, were charged with his killing.  These servants were then killed and their heads were taken to Egypt, while their bodies were crucified at Damascus.  Khumārawayh was taken in a coffin from Damascus to Egypt, and was buried on mount al-Muqattam.  Egypt was shaken by violent riots because of Khumārawayh and his death.

3. After him there was appointed governor of Egypt Gaysh ibn Khumārawayh.  Gaysh returned from Damascus to Egypt and stayed there for eight months. Then there were serious dissensions between him and the commanders.  They rose up against him and killed him.  His brother Hārūn ibn Khumārawayh took his place, at the age of ten years, in the month of rağab of the year 283 [of the Hegira].

4. Al-Mu’tadid wrote a letter to Hārūn b. Khumārawayh, in which he entrusted him with the rule of Egypt.  Hārūn was ten years old and his regent was Abū Ga’far b. Muhammad b. Abā at-Turki.

5.  On the night of Thursday, two days before the end of the month of Rabī’al-awwal of the year 284 [of the Hegira], a strange phenomenon happened in Egypt.  The Christians were intent on celebrating the feast of the Ascension into heaven of our Lord Christ, when wild and violent winds blasted them, from dinner time until midnight.  At midnight, then, there came such a thick darkness that nobody could see their fingers even if they were in their eyes.  Then the harsh winds of earlier returned, taking off the roofs of many houses.  On the heads of people, gathered in their homes, there was a rain of red sand.  At the four corners of the heavens there were flaming columns of fire.  This lasted until dawn.  Then the wind calmed a little and the sky became intensely red, like a flame of fire, with a cold wind.  The earth, the mountains, the trees, the people and their clothes, and all that they could see, looked red because of the intensity of the red sky.  The red [sky] lasted for two hours, then turned yellow until noon.  Then the yellow vanished and the sky became black all day and until noon the day after, before dissolving.  The sun did not appear for a day and a half, from when the winds began to blow, until the black clouds broke.

6. On the morning of Wednesday, 9th of the month of Dhū’l-qa’da of the year 288, there was also, in Egypt, from midnight to dawn, a violent movement of the stars, which the vulgar called falling stars.  The sky was full of such stars coming down from east, west, south and north.  No one could watch the heavens because of the many falling stars.[1] In the first year of the caliphate of al-Mu’tadid, there became patriarch of Antioch Simeon, son of Zarnāq. He held office for twelve years and died.

7. As for Leo, king of the Rūm, his wife died without having children.  He decided to remarry, but the Patriarch of Constantinople, Nicolas, forbade him, saying, “You are not allowed to marry, because you have been consecrated as an anagnoste [= a reader] and you have to fulfill the priestly prayer. If you marry, you will not be allowed to come to the altar.”  King Leo replied: “I decided to marry only in order to have a son who can inherit the kingdom after me.” But the patriarch did not allow him to marry.  Then King Leo wrote to the patriarch of Rome, to Michael, the patriarch of Alexandria, to Elijah, son of Mansur, patriarch of Jerusalem, and to Simeon son of Zarnach, patriarch of Antioch, asking them to go to him in order to examine whether he was allowed to get married or not.  None of them could go in person to the king, but each one sent their own messenger.  The bishops gathered together with the messengers at Constantinople to examine the case of the king and pronounced in favour of his marriage.  King Leo married and had a son called Constantine.  Nicholas was removed from his office and Anthimus was made patriarch of Constantinople.

8. Al-Mu’tadid bi’llāh died on Sunday, nine days before the end of the month of al-ākkar of the year 289.  His caliphate lasted seven years, nine months and two days.  He died at the age of forty-seven.  The administrators of his property were the freedman Badr and `Ubayd Allah b. Sulaymān, who was succeeded in the place that he occupied by his son al-Qasim b. ‘Ubayd Allah (204). Al-Mu’tadid was handsome in his face and body, and he spent much time accumulating riches.

  1. [1]Does he perhaps mean that astronomy became impossible?  There is no explanation of these interesting events in the notes of the Italian.  I find discussion of this, however, in Richard B. Stothers, “Cloudy and clear stratospheres before A.D. 1000 inferred from written sources“, Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (2002), online here: “2.14. A.D. 897 [26] Red skies in Egypt made the outdoor surroundings appear red (Eutychius of Alexandria, Annals, Migne, PG, 111, 1144; al-Tabari, Annals, A.H. 284; Elias of Nisibis, Chronicle, p. 92, Brooks). This event, which occurred only on 5 May and only near Alexandria, was apparently caused by a red sandstorm, as mentioned by the chroniclers.”.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19h – Abbasids part 8

We’re getting to what for Eutychius is modern times.  The next caliph, al-Mutamid, seems to be almost a figurehead, in the account that Eutychius gives.  Real power is in the hands of Abu Ahmad al-Muwaffaq, and he is challenged by the ruler of Egypt.  The Abbasid caliphate is becoming merely a convention.

Eusebius in his chronicle paused at various important points to reckon up the total years from various critical events.  The power of the Eusebian tradition is still strong, even in Eutychius.  He retains this, but modestly considers the date of his own birth to be such an important point!

CALIPHATE OF AL-MU`TAMID BI’LLĀH (256-279/870-893).

1. The bay’ah was given to al-Mu’tamid bi’llāh, i.e. Ahmad ibn Ga’far al-Mutawakkil – his mother was an umm walad named Qiyān, in the month of Rağab of the year 256. His minister, Abd Allah ibn Yahya, was the son of that Khāqān who was previously the minister of al-Mutawakkil.

2.  Wars and revolts followed, in regions and provinces the disorder increased and throughout the territory the number of contenders multiplied. The days of his caliphate were a continuous succession of revolts and wars.  The management of internal affairs was entrusted to Abu Ahmad al-Muwaffaq bi’llāh, al-Mu’tamid’s brother.  Al-Mu’tamid named as his successor his son Ga’far, calling him al-Mufawwid ilà’llāh, and after him, his brother Abū Ahmad b. al-Mutawakkil, giving him the name of al-Muwaffaq bi’llāh.  Abū Ahmad personally headed the military campaigns and made tiring and fatiguing journeys from country to country, while al-Mu’tamid enjoyed himself with pleasures and amusements.

3.  At Basra, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad b. Ahmad b. ‘Ali b. Yazīd b. ‘Ali b. Al-Husayn b. ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib revolted against him, on Monday, two days before the end of the month of Ramadan of the year 256.  He killed all the inhabitants of Basra, took possession of their property and captured their women and children, dividing them among his men. He defeated Basra, and occupied its surroundings and the province.  Abū Ahmad al-Muwaffaq marched against him in the direction of Basra, and there was a war between them for fourteen years.  Then the descendant of Ali was killed at Basra, on the Abū Safyān River at the confluence of the Abū’l-Khasib River on which was built the city called “al-Mukhtārah”, on Wednesday, in the cool of the evening, of the 4th of the month of Safar of the year 270.  From the day when he arose and his banner was raised to the day when he was killed, fourteen and four months and six days elapsed.

4. Muhammad (sic!) Ibn Tūlūn had occupied Egypt and Syria and captured Antioch while Abū Ahmad al-Mutawaffaq (sic!) was preoccupied with the war against the descendant of Ali in Basra.  In the first year of al-Mu’tamid’s caliphate there became patriarch of Antioch Stephen.  He held office for one day and died on the same day after having celebrated Mass.  After him there became patriarch of Antioch Theodosius.  He held office for twenty-one years and died.  In the tenth year of his caliphate there became patriarch of Jerusalem Elijah, son of that Mansūr who had helped the Muslims to conquer Damascus and was accursed all over the world.  He held office for twenty-two years and died.

5. The Patriarch of Alexandria Michael, son of Bukām, died in the year 256 and was buried in the city of Būrah.  After him there became patriarch of Alessandria Michael, originally from Rome (in another text it is said “from Ghazza”), in the third year of the caliphate of al-Mu’tamid, i.e. in 258.  He held office thirty-four years and died in 292, and was buried in Alexandria.

6. Basil, King of the Rūm, died.  After him reigned his son Leo.  He was a wise man and a philosopher.  In the eighth year of the caliphate of al-Mu’tamid, Sa’id ibn Batrīq the physician was born on Sunday, three days before the end of the month of Dhū’l-hiğğa, in the lunar year 263.  From the Hegira until the day of his birth, there elapsed two hundred and fifty-four solar years, years with which he was dating history.  From Diocletian to the birth of Sa’id ibn Batrīq the physician, there elapsed 568 years (in another text “592”); from our Lord Jesus Christ to the birth of Sa’id ibn Batrīq, there elapsed 868 years; from Alexander to his birth, there elapsed 1,199 years; from the captivity of Babylon to his birth, there elapsed 1,450 years; from David until his birth, there elapsed 1,927 years; from the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt until his birth, there elapsed 2,535 years; from Abraham to his birth, there elapsed 3,040 years; from Fāliq until his birth, there elapsed 3,540 years; from the flood until his birth, there elapsed 4,160 years; from Adam until his birth, there elapsed 6,368 years.  It was sixty years from his birth when he was made patriarch of Alexandria and was called anba Eutychius.[1]

7. As for Ahmad ibn Tūlūn, he occupied Antioch and then returned to Egypt. In Misr he built the great mosque that looked out over the lake, built a hospital and a construction bringing water from the lake called “al-Habas”, so that it could serve the Ma’āqir. Ahmad ibn Tūlūn contracted the illness from which he would subsequently die, that is, gastroenteritis, and ordered Muslims, Christians and Jews to climb the mountain called “al-Muqattam” to invoke the help of God upon him. And so they did, going up to the mountain in groups and invoking on him the blessing of God.  However he died of that illness, on the night of Sunday, ten days before the end of the month of Dhū’l-qa’da of the year 270 and was buried on mount al-Muqattam. His commanders gathered together, killed his elder son at Abbas and chose as their leader his younger son, Khumārawayh b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn. He was then twenty years old.  He marched on Damascus at the head of his soldiers and was faced by Abū’l-`Abbās b. Al-Muwaffaq: they met at “at-Tawwāhin”, in the province of Palestine.  Khumārawayh b. Ahmad b. Tūlūn was put to flight and returned to Egypt alone.  During the journey he lost five horses and many of his people were killed.  Abū’l-`Abbās took over all that he found among the soldiers of Khumārawayh b. Ahmad [b. Tulun].  Khumārawayh ibn Ahmad had some men in ambush, completely unaware of the defeat [suffered by their comrades].  As Abu’l-‘Abbās and his men became burdened by all the property that they had taken, they were put to flight and a great slaughter was made.  Then the men of Khumārawayh returned, recaptured the army, returned to Egypt and celebrated the victory with Khumārawayh.  Abu’l-`Abbās returned defeated to Baghdad where he received the blame of his father al-Muwaffaq for what he had done.  Khumārawayh had a large army in Syria.  In the seventeenth year of the caliphate of al-Mu’tamid, that is, in 273, there was a terrible earthquake in Egypt: many houses collapsed and many people lost their lives. That year the grain reached the price of a dinar per mudd. The populace died out from hunger, and even the lynx came to eat them. The markets of Egypt were full of the dead.  They were carried away on camels – on each camel were stacked up to eight corpses – they dug a big ditch and threw them inside.  When Khumārawayh learned that Muhammad ibn Diyūdād, i.e. Abū’s-Sāg, had arrived in Syria at the head of a large army heading for Egypt, he gathered his troops and moved against him.  There was a terrible battle between them at a place called al-Bathaniyyah, in the province of Damascus, and Muhammad ibn ad-Diyūdād, i.e. Ibn as-Sāg, was put to flight.  Many of his forces were killed, but many others sought to be spared by pleading for the protection of Khumārawayh, who continued his journey until he came to the Euphrates.  His men entered the city of ar-Raqqah, buying and selling. Al-Muwaffaq was afraid of him.  Then Khumārawayh returned to Egypt after imposing his sovereignty over the territories from the Euphrates to Nubia, leaving in each country a man as his deputy.  It was the year 276 [of the Hegira].  Al-Muwaffaq died in the month of Safar of the year 278.  His son Abū’l-`Abbās was recognised as his legitimate successor.  Ga’far ibn al-Mu’tamid (194) was deprived of the right of succession to the throne and the management of business went into the hands of Abū’l-‘Abbās ibn al-Muwaffaq who was called al-Mu’tadid.

8. Al-Mu’tamid died at Baghdad on Sunday, eleven days before the end of the the month of Rağab of the year 279 [of the Hegira].  His caliphate lasted twenty-three years and six days.  He died at the age of forty-six.  He was taken to Surramanra’à and was buried there.

  1. [1]I became aware part way through this that Google translate was generating random numbers for these large numerals.  I went back and rechecked, but it is possible that I have been silently deceived for some earlier numbers.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19g – Abbasids part 7

We’re not that far from the close of Eutychius’ Annals, in his own times.  But we still have a few Abbasid caliphs to go through.  None of the next few caliphs lasted very long. Ominously the Turks start to appear as the king-makers.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MUNTASIR BI’LLAH (247-248/861-862).

1.  The bay’ah was given to al-Muntasir bi’llāh/Abū Ğa‘far/ Muhammad b. /Ğa‘far/ al-Mutawakkil – his mother was an umm walad named Hasanah – on the same night that al-Mutawakkil was killed.  Five days after he obtained the caliphate, he moved from al-Ga’fariyyah to Surramanra’ah, destroying al-Ga’fariyyah and abandoning al-Gawsaq.  He deprived his two brothers, Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Mu’tazz bi’llāh and Ibrāhim al-Mu’ayyad bi’llāh, of the right of succession, and wrote letters about this to every part of his territory.  His caliphate lasted one year, six months and three days.  He died at the age of twenty-eight and was buried at Surramanra’a.  His mother raised his tomb: for no caliph before him was a tomb erected.  Al-Muntasir was of medium stature, handsome of body, brown and obese. The chief of his bodyguard was Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Zāhir and his huğğāb were Abū Nāsirat-Turki and Ahmad ibn al-Hasīb.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MUSTA`IN (248-252/862-866).

1. The commanders of the Turks got together to choose the one to whom to give the bay`ah.  They rejected al-Mutawakkil’s son and their choice fell on Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mu’tasim – his mother was an umm walad named Mukhādiq. They gave him the bay’ah and called him al-Musta`in bi’llāh. But as a result of an uprising within the army and a turmoil among the Mawāli[1], al-Musta`in fled, along with the Turks Wasif and Bughā, to Baghdad.  The Mawāli and the forces who were at Surramanra’a placed on the throne Abū ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mu’tazz b. al-Mutawakkil – his mother was an umm walad named Fabtahah – and gave him the bay’ah at the beginning of the month of al-Muharram of the year 251.  Great disagreements and fighting broke out between the men of al-Musta`in, of al-Mu’tazz, and of Abū Ahmad ibn al-Mutawakkil, in charge of al-Mu’tazz’s military affairs.  They continued to fight until the beginning of the month of al-Muharram of the year 252. Then al-Musta`in abdicated and there was peace.  Al-Musta`in wrote of his decision to al-Mu’tazz, who answered him by guaranteeing his safety with an oath.  Then he retired to Iraq, to Wāsit.  His caliphate lasted three years and eight months until the day of abdication.

2. In the first year of the caliphate of al-Musta`in, there was made patriarch of Jerusalem Theodorus, called al-Miqlāti.  He held the office for nineteen years and died.  Al-Musta`in was fat, handsome in body, and had a black beard.  The chief of the bodyguard was Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Zāhir, and his huğgāb were the Turks Wasif and Bughā.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MU`TAZZ (252-255/866-869).

1. All the Turks, and the others who were in Surramanra’a, gave the bay’ah to al-Mu’tazz, in the month of al-Muharram of the year 251, while al-Musta`in was in Baghdad, and the countries were at the mercy of tumults, and most people were on the side of al-Musta`in.  So when al-Musta`in abdicated, at the beginning of the month of al-Muharram of the year 252, the people made submission to [al-Mu’tazz].  Al-Mu’tazz restored the right of succession to the throne to Ibrāhim al-Mu’ayyad bi’llāh (156) but then took it away.  Ibrāhim al-Mu’ayyad bi’llāh died.  Abu Ahmad conceived a violent hatred against al-Mu’tazz because of what had happened to his brother.  Al-Mu’tazz then exiled him to Basra, and killed Wasīf and Bughā. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir, chief of the guards, died.  [Al-Mu’tazz] recalled al-Musta`in  from Wāsit and gave the job of killing him to his hāgib, Sa`īd ibn Sālih.

2. Theophilus, son of Michael, son of Theophilus, king of the Rūm, died.  After him, his son Michael, son of Theophilus, son of Michael, reigned.  There was at that time a general named Basil, whom the king had preferred to all the others, giving him command over all his men and generals.  One day, King Michael went out for a walk on the island opposite Constantinople, in the middle of the sea called Pontus.  The general Basil attacked him, killed him inside the church on the island, got rid of all those who were on the island and took over the kingdom.  Basil did not belong to the royal family, because he was of Slavic origin.  When asked why he had killed the king, he replied, “Michael had fallen madly in love with a woman and had ordered me to marry her but never to approach her.  The woman would be mine in words, but he would be sleeping with her.” He had resorted to this expedient for fear that his wife knew him,[2] and also because he was not allowed to marry another woman in addition to his wife.  “First I followed him, then I felt repentance, I was afraid of God, and I thought it best to kill him.”  Thus Basil became king of the Rūm.

3. Al-Mu’tazz appointed as governor of Egypt the Turk Bākbāk, who appointed as his lieutenant Ahmad ibn Tulūn and sent him to Egypt.  Bākbāk had given his daughter in marriage to Ahmad ibn Tūlūn.  Ahmad ibn Tūlūn entered Egypt in the month of Ramadan in the year 254.  Between al-Mu’tazz and the Mawāli there were strong disagreements.

4. Al-Mu`tazz died on Tuesday, three days before the end of the month of Ragab of the year 255.  His caliphate had lasted, from al-Musta`in’s abdication, three years, nine months and eight days.  He died at the age of twenty-two and was buried at Surramanra’a.  His mother erected his tomb near that of al-Muntasir.  Al-Mu’tazz was of a fair complexion, handsome, with a handsome face and a graceful body.  There had never been one equal to him for the grace of face and beauty. The chief of his bodyguard was Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir, and, on  his death, ‘Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir.  Then the guard passed to the command of Sulaymān ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir (167), and was later entrusted to Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir.  His huğgāb were Wasif and Bughā, then Sālih took the place of his father [Wasīf] and Bākbāk at-Turki took that of Bughā.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MUHTADĪ (255-256/869-870).

1.  The bay’ah was given to al-Muhtadī, i.e. Muhammad ibn Hārūn al-Wāthiq bi’llāh b. al-Mu’tasim bi’llāh – his mother was an umm walad named Qurb – on Tuesday, three days before the end of the month of Rağab of the year 255.  His caliphate lasted only one year. He was killed at the age of thirty-nine and was buried at Surramanra’a. Al-Muhtadī was of medium stature, handsome in body and face, and had a black curly beard.  The chief of his bodyguard was Ubayd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah and his hāgib was Sālih ibn Wasif. Then Sālih was killed and Takin at-Turki took the place.

  1. [1]The freed slaves.
  2. [2]Not sure that I have this right: the Italian is “Era ricorso a questo espediente per paura che lo sapesse sua moglie, …”.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19f – Abbasids part 6

Let’s carry on with the Annals of Eutychius.  In the Islamic world, the second-class status of the Christians means that they hold their property only at the whim of the caliph.  This starts to become an increasing problem.  Meanwhile in Constantinople the talk is all about iconoclasm.

CALIPHATE OF ĞA‘FAR AL-MUTAWAKKIL (232-247/847-861).

1. The bay’ah was given to Ga’far al-Mutawakkil, son of al-Mu’tasim – his mother was an umm walad named Shuğā ‘al-Khwārizmiyyah – on the same day that al- Wathiq died.  He released those who had been imprisoned because of the question of the creation of the Qur’an, and withdrew his favour from Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik, minister of al-Mu’tasim, and disapproved of the actions of al-Mu’tasim, of al-Wāthiq, of Umar ibn al-Farah az-Zugahi, of Itāh at-Turki and of Ahmad ibn Abi Dāwūd, the supreme qādi.  He gave the bay’ah to his three sons, namely Muhammad al-Muntasir bi’llāh, Ibrāhim al-Mu’ayyad min Allah and Abū ‘Abd Allah al-Mu’tazz bi’llāh, designating the latter as his successor from the beginning of the year 236 of the Hegira.  Public affairs were restored, the countries returned to order and the streets made safe.

2. It was reported to al-Mutawakkil that the nilometer, built by Sulaymān ibn ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān on the island at Fustāt-Misr, was out of order.  He then sent an Iraqi geometrician, chosen by Muhammad ibn Mūsa the astrologer, who went to Egypt where Yazīd ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Nādān b. Farah was responsible for providing all forms of assistance, and where Sulaymān ibn Wahb was in charge of collecting taxes, and he made a nilometer at Gizat-Misr in Year 245.  It was called “al-Miqyās al-ğadid” [= the new hydrometer] because the old one was out of order.  Al-Mutawakkil built a city called “al-Ga’fariyyah”.  He withdrew his favour from the physician Bukhtishū’, and sent letters to all countries, ordering that Christians should wear clothes of the same pattern and with patches, as well as surcoats with a front and back flap, that they were prohibited from riding horses, carrying ropes on their saddles, or using wooden brackets, and that the images of the devils should be drawn on their doors. (In another text it says “pigs and monkeys”). This order brought serious harm, pain and concern upon the Christians.

3. Michael, son of Theophilus, king of the Rūm, died.  After him there was made king over Rūm his son Theophilus.  He removed the images from the churches, sanded down the bas-reliefs and broke the statues, and ordered that there were to be no more images in the churches.  The reason that caused him to take the images away from the churches was this.  One of his ministers told him that, in a certain place in Byzantine territory, there was a church dedicated to the Blessed Mary, in which a picture was worshiped, from whose breast a drop of milk came out on her feast day.  King Theophilus found this a strange thing and made inquiries.  It was then discovered that the clerk of the church had made a hole in the wall behind the image, at the height of the breast of the image, and had inserted a thin tube of lead.  He then covered the place with clay and lime so that it could not be seen.  When then the day of the feast of the Blessed Mary’ came, he poured milk into that hole, and a small drop dripped from the breast of the image.  People made pilgrimage to that church, and the clerk earned much money that way.  King Theophilus therefore sent to destroy that image, to bring things back to normal, and ordered that there should be no more images in the churches.  He then ordered the execution of the clerk and took away the pictures from the churches saying, “Images are like idols: he who adores an image is like the one who adores idols.”  Then there were disputes among the Rūm about the images and they ended up accusing each other of impiety. Some said: “He who prostrates himself in front of an image is impious!” While others said, “Whoever does not prostrate himself in front of the image is impious!” The news came to Sophronius, patriarch of Alexandria, who wrote a long sermon in which he took up the defense of the cult of images using the following argument: “God – to whom be the highest praise and holy be his name! – ordered Moses to portray the cherubim in gold on the ark of the covenant and to put it in the Temple.” And he carried on, saying: “When Solomon, son of David, built the Temple and had completed the construction, he put the golden image of the cherubim inside.” And again he said, “When the king wrote a letter to his lieutenant, and he added the seal with his ring, he [the lieutenant] said to the people, “This is the seal of the king and his letter,” did not he stand up to take the letter in his hands and kiss it and lower his head and eyes?  Certainly he stood up, and kissed the letter; not to honor the paper, or the stamp of the seal on the paper, or the ink on the letter, nor did he stand up to honour the letter of itself. No, for my life, for none of these things. It was only an act of honor that he intended to make to the king and to the king’s name, it being his [the king’s] letter.  In this sense, we must kiss this image and worship it, because it is not for us to kiss and venerate a cult made to idols.[1] It is for us a pure and simple act of honor and veneration, made in the name of that martyr depicted in that image and in that particular way.”  Then he sent what he had written to King Theophilus.  The king welcomed it, rejoiced and refused to forbid the worship of images, as he had done at first.  Among those who defended the cult of the images was Abū Qurra, who wrote in this regard a treatise that he called “Mayāmir as-Suğūd li’s-suwar” [= “Sermons on the Cult of Images”].

4. Sophronius, patriarch of Alexandria, died of dropsy- he had not been able to drink mandrake juice – in the year 233 of the Hegira.  After him there was made patriarch of Alexandria Michael.  He held the office for twenty-four years.  He belonged to the Bukām family and came from the town of Būrah.  The caliphate of al-Mutawakkil lasted fourteen years, nine months and nine days.  In the tenth year of the caliphate of al-Mutawakkil, there was made patriarch of Jerusalem Salmūn, son of Zarqūn.  He held the office for five years and died.

5. Al-Mutawakkil died in his palace, in the city he had built and called “al-Ga’fariyyah”.  His murder took place on the night of 3 March of the month of Shawwāl of the year 247. He was forty-four.  He was buried at “al-Ga’fariyyah”.  Al-Mutawakkil was brown, with a delicate, almost yellowish, complexion, handsome in face, and had a little beard on his cheeks, and big eyes.  The chief of his bodyguard was Ishāq ibn Ibrāhim and, on his death, Muhammad ibn Ishāq. When he [also] died, there came back from Khurāsān Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah b. Zāhir and became chief of the guards. His huğgāb were Wasīf at-Turkī, then Sa`īd ibn Sālih and Bughā at-Turki.  His huğgāb, for the audience of the people, were Ya’qūb ibn Ibrāhim, then Qawsara and ‘Attāb ibn’ Attāb.  His influential advisers were al-Fath ibn Khāqān and the kātib ‘Ubayd Allāh ibn Yahyā b. Khāqān.

  1. [1]Not at all sure that I have this right!  The Italian is: “In questo senso dobbiamo baciare questa immagine e venerarla, non essendo affatto il nostro baciarla e venerarla un culto reso agli idoli.”

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19e – Abbasids part 5

CALIPHATE OF AL-WĀTHIQ (227-232/842-847)

1. The bay’ah was given to al-Wāthiq, i.e. Hārūn ibn al-Mu’tasim – his mother was a umm walad named Qarātis, on the same day that al-Mu’tasim died. He left the internal affairs as they were in the days of al-Mu’tasim, He built the palace known by the name of al-Hārūni, and moved there.  Al-Wāthiq argued that the Qur’an was created, and this theory he inculcated, until it was accepted by Ahmad ibn Abi Dāwūd and Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Malik az-Zayyāt, his minister.  Al-Wāthiq sent letters to all the provinces in which he asked [his governors] to induce all Muslims to support the creation of the Koran by writing to the mosques.  But the Muslims considered that such a proposal was insolent and oppressive, and they vigorously refused to accept it.  All those who rejected this claim, or who did not approve, or who did not support it, were flogged, imprisoned or killed.  His caliphate lasted five years, seven months and thirteen days.

2. Theophilus, king of the Rūm, died.  After him Michael, son of Theophilus, was made king.  In the second year of the caliphate of al-Wāthiq, there was made patriarch of Jerusalem Sergius, son of that Mansūr who had helped the Muslims to conquer Damascus and had been hit by anathema everywhere in the world.  He held the office for sixteen years and died.  In the sixth year of his caliphate there was made patriarch of Antioch Nicholas.  He held the office for twenty-three years and died.

3. Al-Wāthiq died on Wednesday, six days before the end of the month of Dhū’l-hiğğa of the year 232, at the age of thirty-four.  Al-Wāthiq was of medium stature, fair in body, and had a wide chest, a thick beard and a bit of white in the eye. The chief of his bodyguard was Ishāq ibn Ibrāhim and his huğğāb were the freedman Itāh at-Turkī, the freedman Bughā at-Turkī, the freedman Wasif at-Turkī, Muhammad ibn Hammād b. Danqash and Muhammad ibn ‘Āsim al-Gabalī. His huğgāb for the audience of the people were also Ya’qūb ibn Ibrāhim, Qawsara  and Attāb ibn ‘Attāb.  His influential advisers were Ahmad ibn Abi Dāwūd and Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Malik az-Zayyāt.

 

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19d – Abbasids part 4

CALIPHATE OF AL-MUTASIM (218-227/833-842).

1. The bay’ah was given to al-Mu`tasim, i.e. Abū Ishāq Muhammad b. Hārūm ar-Rashid – his mother was a “umm walad” named Māridah – at Tarsus.  But some of al-Ma’mūn’s generals advocated appointing al-‘Abbās, son of al-Ma’mūn, as caliph, and in fact acknowledged al-‘Abbās ibn al-Ma’mūn as their caliph.  All the other generals recognized al-Mu’tasim as their caliph.  The news of his appointment came to Baghdad where the bay’ah was given to him by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhim b. al-Husayn b. Mus’ab – who was then in Baghdad -, the Hāshemites and the various generals who were in the city. The bay’ah was also given by ‘Abd Allah ibn Zāhir in Khurāsān and he summoned al-Mu’tasim.  Al-Mu’tasim went to Baghdad at the beginning of the month of Ramadan of year 218 and remained there until 222.  Then he moved on Surramanra’à, surrounded it with a wall and camped there with his soldiers.  He sent Afshin Kindarā ibn Kāwus to fight against Tābak al-Gurrami, who occupied the city and imprisoned him together with his men.  The conquest took place in the month of Ramadan of the year 222.  He sent Uğayf ibn ‘Anbasa against the Zutt who lived in Batā’ih, took them prisoners and carried them off with him.  Al-Māziyār had revolted with the army of Tabaristan.  ‘Abd Allah ibn Zāhir sent [against him] his uncle al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn who made him prisoner and brought him to al-Mu’tasim.

2. Then al-Mu’tasim entered the territory of the Rūm, with the intention of invading, taking with him the Patriarch of Antioch Job, and besieging the city of Ankara.  The patriarch Job spoke in Greek to the Rūm saying to them: “Make submission to the Sultan and pay the poll tax. It is better to do this than to be killed or taken prisoner.” The Rūm rejected him and threw stones at him.  Then al-Mu’tasim captured Ankara and burned it.  Then he went on ‘Ammūriyyah and besieged it for a month (In another text it says “for months”).  Every day the patriarch of Antioch Job went to the citadel alone and spoke to the Rūm in Greek, trying to play on their fear and persuade them to pay the poll tax, so that al-Mu’tasim would leave them in peace.  But the Rūm covered him with insults and pelted him with dirt.  They continued until al-Mu’tasim captured ‘Ammūriyyah: many were killed and many others were taken prisoners.  This was in the month of Ramadan of the year 223.  After having captured ‘Ammūriyyah, al-Mu’tasim started his way back.  During his absence, al-‘Abbās ibn al-Ma’mūn died.  Al-Mu’tasim gave his property to al-Afshin in the year 225.

3. Constantine, king of the Rūm, died.  After him there reigned over Rūm Theophilus.  In the fourth year of al-Mu’tasim’s caliphate there became patriarch of Alexandria Sophronius.  He held the office for thirteen years.  He was a philosopher and a wise man.  In the seventh year of the caliphate of al-Mu’tasim, John was patriarch of Jerusalem; but the inhabitants of Jerusalem spoke so much ill of him that, frightened, he wrote a letter, under duress, in which he renounced the office.

4. Al-Mu’tasim died in the month of Rabī ‘al-awwal of the year 227.  His caliphate lasted eight years and eight months.  He died at the age of forty-eight and was buried at Surramanra’à al-Ğawsaq.  Al-Mu’tasim was fair of body and face, with a wide chest, strong body, and a long beard with no white hair.  The chief of his bodyguard was Ishāq ibn Ibrāhim.  His huggab, for the audience of the nobility, were the freedman Simā at-Turkī, the freedman Wasif at-Turki and Bughā at-Turki.  His huğgāb for the audience of the people were Muhammad ibn ‘Āsim al-Hanaki, Ya’qūb ibn Ibrāhim, ‘Attāb ibn ‘Attāb and Muhammad ibn Hammād b. Danqash.  His influential advisers were the supreme “qadi”, Ahmad ibn Abi Dāwūd and the secretary Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Malik az-Zayyāt.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19c – Abbasids part 3

It’s good to return to the Annals of Eutychius.  We continue with the reign of al-Mamun. 

CALIPHATE OF AL-MA’MUN (196-218/814-833).

1. In Khurasan, in the year 196 of the Hegira, the bay’ah was given to al-Ma’mūn, i.e. ‘Abd Allah ibn Hārūn ar-Rashid b. Muhammad al-Mahdi b. ‘Abd Allah Allāh b. Hārūn b. Al-Mansūr – his mother was Marāgil and belonged to one of the most illustrious families of al-Bāda’ishah.

2. Muhammad al-Amin, brother of al-Ma’mūn, was killed in Baghdad at the end of the month of al-muharram of the year 198.  Zāhir ibn al-Husayn was in Baghdad in the east, Hartama in the west and Humayd b. ‘Abd al-Hamid at-Tūsi was four parasangs from Baghdad.  [Al-Ma’mūn] entrusted the government of Iraq to al-Husayn ibn Sahl (66) around whom the provinces of Iraq and others had been united.  The countries were all in turmoil.  All the time a pretender came from one side or another, and from other lines.  Al-Ma’mūn then left Khurāsān and went to Baghdād during the month of Safar of the year 204.  He gave the command of the guards to Zāhir ibn al-Husayn and granted his protection to everyone.  Then he defeated Ibrāhim ibn al-Mahdī, nicknamed Ibn Shiklah, who had been proclaimed caliph and had assumed the title of prince of the believers.  He sent his troops to the countries in revolt, and reduced all the provinces to obedience. Everyone submitted and obeyed him, and every insurrection was thus subdued.

3. Abū Ishāq Ibrāhim ibn al-Mahdī, better known by the name of Ibn Shiklah, said: “Before the killing of Muhammad al-Amin we used to exchange letters in this form: “From A, son of B, to C, son of D.” or: “From the father of A, to the father of C,”[1] or: “To the father of A from C, son of D.”, without introducing any formula of greeting in the heading.”  And he records that the governor of Baghdad sent him a letter from Dhū’r-Ri’āsatayn, i.e. al-Fadl ibn Sahl, whose heading was like this: “To Abū Ishāq – may God Most High preserve him! -, from Abū’l-`Abbās”. Abū Ishāq tells us also: “When I saw that heading, I sent the letter to my uncle Sulaymān, believing that he would see it as something new.  But when he received my letter, he sent his hāgib with a letter of Dhū ar-Ri’āsatayn the same as the heading of what he had written to me.  It was since then that greeting formulas in have been used in the headings of letters”.

4. Muhammad ibn as-Sari b. al-Hakam was in Egypt [as governor].  He rebelled, refused the authority of al-Ma’mūn and seized Egypt.  His father, as-Sari ibn al-Hakam, had previously had his hands on Egypt before him.  Al-Ma’mūn then sent `Ubayd Allah ibn Zāhir to Egypt.  When he arrived in Egypt, Ubayd Allah offered peace to Ibn as-Sari, who was governor at the time of his arrival in Egypt, made his entrance to Misr, received the [tribute] money, and sent it to al-Ma’mūn in Baghdad.  ‘Ubayd Allāh expanded the great Misr Mosque, after writing to al-Ma’mūn and having it approved, adding the “dar ar-Raml”, of which he completed the construction, and leaving incomplete the “Dar ad-Darb”.  The dome of the church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem was in a bad condition and was threatening to collapse.

5. Palestine and Jerusalem were suffering a severe famine and the invasion of countless grasshoppers.  Many died of hunger.  The Muslims fled from Jerusalem because of the famine and there was only a scattering in the city.  The patriarch of Jerusalem Thomas, known as Tamriq, seized the opportunity – that Jerusalem had been abandoned by the Muslims – and sent men to Cyprus to cut fifty cedar and pine logs and bring them to Jerusalem.  There was a man called Bukām, of Būrah of Egypt, who was very wealthy.  He sent a large sum of money to Thomas, patriarch of Jerusalem, to use it to repair the dome, asking him not to take any money from others and to turn to him alone if he needed any more money.  Thomas demolished the dome piece by piece, by hand, replacing the beams upon which he then built the new construction.  In a dream, Patriarch Thomas saw forty men come out of one of the columns that held up the dome of the Resurrection, who supported the cupola with their hands so that it would not collapse. The column was the one found under the temple.  He awoke and said, “Those forty who the column supported must be the Forty Martyrs.”  He made forty logs support the dome, as thick as a man’s arms could encircle, according to the number of the Forty Martyrs. The column was the one in front of the ambo, next to the altar, on the south side.  When the feast of the Forty Martyrs came round, they celebrated it in front of that column.  After finishing repairing the dome with the logs, attaching one to the others, above and below, Patriarch Thomas made another dome above the dome, leaving enough space between them for a man to be able to walk, and he lined it all over with lead.

6. While Ubayd Allah ibn Zāhir was returning from Egypt, going to Baghdad, the Muslims complained to him, about the fact that Christians had transgressed the provisions that had been made to list what was not permissible, by demolishing the dome of the Church of the Resurrection.  It had been a small dome, but they had enlarged it so much that it was bigger than before, exceeding the Dome of the Rock in height.  ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Zāhir then summoned the Patriarch Thomas and another group of people and put them in prison, while he investigated what they were doing: if what the Muslims had complained about was true, then he would punish them.  They were led to prison in the night by an old Muslim who told the patriarch Thomas: “I am able to suggest a way to save you and your companions, with the help of God, and the dome also, provided that you promise to give me a thousand dinars and to pay me, my son and the children of my son, until their extinction and always, an income of the income of this cupola in the measure that the priests and deacons receive it.”  Patriarch Thomas promised him what he asked and put it in writing.  Then the old Muslim said to them, “When they prosecute you and bring evidence against you, you say to them, “May God save the prince! All I did was repair the part of the dome that needed repairs. And in fact I did it without destroying anything and added nothing to it. Those who depose against me have only been able to say that the dome was smaller than it is now and that I have enlarged it. Well, let the Prince ask them how large was the “small dome” that I am supposed to have demolished, as they say, and how much is this that I am supposed to have built and expanded, so that the Prince can realizes what has been added to its dimensions.” Certainly they will not know how to answer.” The next day, when the Patriarch Thomas and his companions were summoned and the Muslims appeared to stand against him, on the expansion of the dome, the Patriarch Thomas refuted them by resorting to that argument. Then Ubayd Allah ibn Zāhir said to them: “What he asks is right, and we too are of the same opinion. Let me know what the size of the dome was before it was demolished, and what is the size of the dome.” They said: “We will be doing surveys,” and they went out.  ‘Ubayd Allāh ibn Zāhir went off to Damascus, and patriarch Thomas and his people returned to Jerusalem.  The Patriarch Thomas gave the thousand dinars to that old Muslim man and continued to pay to him, to his son and to his son the income of the dome, until there was only a daughter from whom the patriarch of Jerusalem Elijah, son of Mansūr, removed that privilege.  Patriarch Thomas died and his disciple Basil was made patriarch of Jerusalem, in the seventh year of the caliphate of al-Ma’mūn. Basil held the office for twenty-five years and died.

7. In the first year of the caliphate of al-Ma’mūn, Job was patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for thirty years.  ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Zāhir returned to Baghdad to al-Ma’mūn, made him aware of the situation in Egypt and how much he had done to you to restore order.  Subsequently, there appeared the Bima – a Coptic word that means “descendants of the Forties”.  For when the Rūm left Egypt at the time of the advent of Islam, they left behind forty men who propagated, multiplied and reproduced in Lower Egypt, receiving the name of “Bima”, the descendants of the Forty. They rebelled and refused to pay the poll tax and the land tax.  Learning of this, al-Ma’mūn sent to Egypt al-Mu’tasim at the head of an army.  The Bima faced him and he fought against them, making great slaughter, and he routed them, captured their women and children and carried them off to Baghdad.  After establishing order in Egypt, al-Mu’tasim returned to Baghdad.  Then al-Ma’mūn went to Egypt together with al-Mu’tasim and entered on the night of Friday, 9th of the month of al-Muharram of the year 217 of the Hegira.  The first day of the month of Safar, they went to the territory of the “Bima”, then left and entered Misr and al-Fustāt on Saturday 14th of the month of Safar.  In the month of Rabī ‘al-awwal of the same year, al-Ma’mūn left Egypt.  After he entered Misr, al-Ma’mūn had built, on Mount al-Muqattam, his own residence with a dome called “qubbat al-Hawà”:  With al-Ma’mūn were some Christian upholsterers.  Because the churches of the citadel were far from where they were, they asked al-Ma’mūn permission to build a church to pray near the “qubbat al-Hawa”.  He granted it.  Thus they built a church to pray, which they called the church of “Martmaryam” at al-Qantarah, which is nowadays known as the “Rūm church”, but previously it was called the “Church of the Upholsterers”.  It is said that they built it using the remains of the “Qubbat al-Hawa”.

In Upper Egypt al-Ma’mūn built a hydrometer in order to measure the waters of the Nile, in a place called Shūrāt, at a village called Banūdah, and he repaired the nilometer at Ikhmim.  One day there came to al-Ma’mūn, the Christian Bukām of Būrah, the same who sent the money to build the dome of the Resurrection, and asked him to make him governor of the province of Būrah. He was very rich. Al-Ma’mūn answered him; “Become a Muslim, and you will be their lord.” Bukām replied: “The prince of believers has tens of thousands of Muslim officials, but he does not have even one Christian.” Al-Ma’mūn rose and entrusted to him the province of Būrah and its surroundings. Bukām built many beautiful churches in the territory of Būrah. Facing the door of his house there was the main mosque. He said to the Muslims of Būrah: “I’ll build you another big mosque if you destroy that which is in front of my house.” The Muslims replied: “Build another mosque while we continue to pray in this. When you finish building, we’ll pray in it and destroy the other one.” He thus constructed a large and beautiful mosque and when he completed the construction, he said to them: “Be faithful to the word given and demolish the mosque that is in front of my door.” But they answered him, “Our religion does not allow us to pull down a mosque in which we have already prayed, where we gathered at the voice of the muezzin and in which we held the Friday prayer together. No, our religion does not allow it.” The mosque therefore remained where it was and in Būrah there were two mosques where they gathered for the rite of prayer. The Muslims prayed on one Friday in one and one Friday in the other. Bukām used to dress in black and girded with a sword and went riding a horse preceded by his men. When he came to the mosque, he stopped and a delegate went in, who was a Muslim, to direct the prayer and hold the prayers in the caliph’s name, returning, once he had finished, to him. The Christians continued to dress in black and to ride until the time of al-Mutawakkil. Al-Ma’mūn returned to Baghdad.

8. Constantine fought against Nicephorus, son of Istabrāq, and defeated him, becoming king of the Rūm.  Al-Ma’mūn made three campaigns, the last of which was in the year 218.  Then he came to al-Yadidūn, fell ill and died.  He was carried to Tūs, and was buried there. His caliphate – after he was saluted as caliph in Khurāsān – lasted twenty-two years.  He died at the age of forty-nine years in the month of Rağab in the year 218.  He was of a whitish-rosy complexion, handsome, and had a long beard, already white in many places. The chiefs of his bodyguard were Zuhayr ibn al-Musayyab as-Sabbi, then Zahir ibn al-Husayn. Among his guards the command was held by Ishāq ibn Ibrāhūn. His hāgib while he was in Khurāsān was al-Husayn ibn Abi Sa’id. Later his hāgib was ‘Ali ibn Sālih, sāhib al-musallā. The influential ministers at the beginning of his caliphate were Dhū’r-Ri’āsatayn al-Fadl ibn Sahl and after that many others, including al-Husayn ibn Sahl, Umar ibn Sa’id and Ahmad ibn Abī Khālid.

  1. [1]King Hussein of Jordan, father of King Abdullah, the current ruler, used to be referred to, during his life, as “Abu Abdullah”, i.e. “Father of Abdullah”.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19b – Abbasids part 2

We continue with a couple more caliphs.

CALIPHATE OF HARUN AR-RASHID (170-193 / 786-809).

1. The bay’ah was given to Harun ar-Rashid b. al-Mahdi – his mother was al-al-Khayzuran – in the same night that Musa al-Hadi died, the night of Friday 14 Rabi al-awwal in the year 170.  That night his son al-Ma’mun was born.  He entrusted the management of his business in Yahya b. Khalid b. Barmak.  During his caliphate he made the pilgrimage to Mecca  nine times and he invaded the territories of Rum eight times.  He removed his favour from the Barmakees in the month of Safar of the year 187 of the Hegira. His caliphate lasted twenty-three years, two months and sixteen days.

2. Leo (IV), son of Constantine, son of Leo, king of Rum, died.  After him there was made king of Rum Nicephorus (I), son of Istirāq[1], who asked for a truce from [Harun] ar-Rashid.  Ar-Rashid gave him a respite of three years.  There ruled in Egypt, in the name of ar-Rashid, Musa b. Isa al-Hashimi, who extended the Great Mosque of Misr at the rear of the building which may still be seen.  Ar-Rashid then deposed Musa ibn Isa and entrusted the government of Egypt to Abd Allah ibn al-Mahdi.  Abd Allah sent as a gift to ar-Rashid a young girl of his choice from among the Yemenis who lived in the south of Egypt.  She was very beautiful and ar-Rashid fell intensely in love.  The young girl was then hit by a serious disease.  The doctors cared for her but no medicine was effective.  They said to ar-Rashid: “Send word to your governor in Egypt, Abd Allah, to send you an Egyptian doctor.  The Egyptian doctors are more able than those of Irāq to cure this young girl.”  Ar-Rashid sent word to Abd Allah ibn al-Mahdi to choose the most skillful Egyptian doctor and send him to him, telling him about the young girl and of what had happened.  Abd Allah sent for Politianus, the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria, expert in medicine, made him aware of the young girl and the disease that had struck her, and sent him to ar-Rashid.  [Politianus] brought with him some Egyptian durum “ka’k”[2], and some pilchards.  When he arrived in Baghdad and presented himself to the young girl, he gave her some rustic ka’k and pilchards to eat.  The young girl recovered her health at once, and the pain disappeared.  After that [ar-Rashid] began to order from Egypt, for the sultan’s use, durum ka’k and pilchards.  Ar-Rashid gave lots of money to the patriarch Politianus and gave him in writing an order which provided that all the churches that the Jacobites had taken away from the Melkites and of which they had taken possesion, should be returned.  The patriarch Politianus returned to Egypt and got back his churches.  The patriarch Politianus died after having held the patriarchal seat for forty six years.  After him there was made patriarch of Alexandria Eustathius[3], in the sixteenth year of the Caliphate of ar-Rashid.  Eustace was a linen-maker and had found a treasure in the house in which he used to prepare linen.  He had embraced the monastic life at “Dayr al Qusayr”, later becoming the superior.  He built at “Dayr al-Qusayr” the church of the Apostles, and a residence for the bishops.  Later he was made patriarch of Alexandria, held the office for four years and died.  After him there was made patriarch of Alexandria Christopher[4] in the twentieth year of the Caliphate of ar-Rashid.  The patriarch Christopher was hit by hemiplegia and could only move if supported.  There was therefore appointed a bishop named Peter after a vote whom the bishops put in place of the patriarch.  Christopher held the office for thirty-two years and died.  In the eighth year of the Caliphate of ar-Rashid there was made patriarch of Antioch Theodoret.  He held the office for seventeen years and died.  During the caliphate of ar-Rashid there was, after the afternoon prayer, an eclipse of the sun so intense that you could see the stars, and people stood screaming at the sky imploring God – may His name be glorious!  In Khurasan there rebelled against ar-Rashid, Rafi ibn al-Layth and occupied it.  Ar-Rashid invaded Khurasan, but at Gurgan he became ill and stopped at Tus, sending al-Ma’mun to Merv to the head of a large army.

3. Ar-Rashid died in the month of Jumādà al-Akhar in the year 193 [of the Hegira], at the age of forty-six.  He was buried in Tus, in the city of an-Nirāt [5].  The sons who were with him, those of his family and his commanders gave the bay’ah to his son Muhammad ibn Zubaydah.  Al-Fadl ibn ar-Rabi returned with his men to Baghdād.  Ar-Rashid was of perfect stature, handsome of face, with a black and flowing beard which he used to cut when he went on pilgrimage.  The leaders of his bodyguard were al-Qasim ibn Nasr b. Malik first, then Hamza ibn Hazim b. Obayd Allah b. Malik, then Hafs ibn Umar b. ash-Shugayr.  His hāgib was Bishr ibn Maymun b. Muhammad b. Khalid b. Barmak.  Then al-Fadl ibn Rabi regained this position.

CALIPHATE OF MUHAMMAD AL-AMIN (193-198 / 809-814).

1. The news of the death of ar-Rashid arrived in Baghdad on Wednesday, twelve days before the end of Jumāda al-Akhar.  The crowds gathered, his son Muhammad went out in the pulpit, and invited them to mourn his death.  The people gave him the bay’ah on that day.  Then there appeared strong differences between him and his brother al-Ma’mun.  The mother of Muhammad al-Amin was called Umm Jaffar[6], and was the daughter of Abu Jaffar al-Mansur.  Muhammad al-Amin sent Ali ibn Isa b. Mahan to Khurasan to fight against al-Ma’mun, who sent against him, from Merv, Zahir ibn al-Husayn b. Sa’b al-Būsagi.  Zahir killed Ali ibn Isa, put to flight the armies of Muhammad al-Amin and came to Baghdad, where he was joined by Hartama ibn A’yan and Humayd ibn Abd al-Hamid at-Tusi. Al-Ma’mun was hailed as caliph in Khurasan in the year 196.  The civil war then moved to Baghdād.

2. Muhammad al-Amin was killed in Baghdad on Saturday, five days before the end of the month of Muharram of the year 198 [of the Hegira].  His caliphate, until the day of his murder, had lasted four years, eight months and six days. He was killed at the age of twenty-eight years.

3. Nicephorus, son of Istabraq, king of Rum, died.  After him there reigned over Rum  Istabraq[7], son of Nicephorus, son of Istabraq.

4. In the third year of the caliphate of Muhammad al-Amin there was made patriarch of Jerusalem Thomas, nicknamed Tamriq[8].  He held the office for ten years.

5. Muhammad al-Amin was handsome, with a perfect constitution, white-skinned, fat, strongly built, with thin fingers.  His body was buried at Baghdād and his head brought to Khurasan.  The leader of his bodyguard was Ali ibn Isa b. Mahan and his hāgib al-Fadl ibn ar-Rabi, who was also his confidential adviser.

  1. [1]Elsewhere “Istabrāq”; i.e. Stauracius.
  2. [2]A collective term for various pastries and pretzels.
  3. [3]813-817 AD
  4. [4]817-848.
  5. [5]Possibly means “Iran”?
  6. [6]I.e. Zubaydah, the wife of Harun ar-Rashid.
  7. [7]Stauracius, emperor of the East from 26 July 811 to 2 October 811.
  8. [8]807-821.

The Annals of Eutychius of Alexandria (10th c. AD) – chapter 19a – The Abbasids arrive!

After the murder of Marwan II, last of the Ummayad caliphs, we begin the Abbasid caliphs.  These are basically Persians, so the centre of the Islamic world moves eastward.  The first few Abbasid caliphs seem to lack shelf-life.  Interestingly Eutychius does not have good information on the patriarchs of Constantinople or Rome from this point onwards; indeed his information on the Byzantine emperors is sketchy too.  The west is moving out of vision.  Also Eutychius becomes suddenly silent on how caliphs died, saying only “they died”.  Of Musa al-Hadi he says, “He was twenty-five, handsome, he loved to ride and enjoyed a strong constitution”, none of which was enough to keep him alive and ruling for more than fourteen months.

Chapter XIX.  THE ABBASID CALIPHS.

CALIPHATE OF ABŪ’L-‘ABBĀS AS-SAFFĀH (132-136/749-754).

1. The bay’ah was given to Abūl’ Abbās, i.e. Abd Allah ibn Muhammad b. Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas b. Abd al-Muttalib – his mother was Radiyya, the daughter of Abd Allah ibn Ubayd Allah b. al-Abbas b. Abd al-Maddān -, in Kufa, on Wednesday of the month of Rabi al-Akhar in the year 132 of the Hegira.  He went on horseback to the mosque on Fridays, and preached to the people standing, while the Umayyads used to deliver their “khutbah” [1] while sitting.  Then he sent his armies against Yazid ibn Omar al-Huzayza Qarāri in Wasit and he sent against Marwan ibn Muhammad his uncle Abd Allah b. Ali who put him to flight in order to oust him from Mesopotamia and Syria.  Then he sent Salih ibn Ali who chased Marwan into Egypt – Abu Awn was at the forefront – until Marwan was killed.

2. As for the Rum, after the death of king Leo[2] and suffering continuous revolts so as to see their kingdom a prey to disorder, they elected as their king a man from Mar’ash named Artābatus.[3]  His rule was very disordered during the time of Abu’l-Abbās and al-Mansur.  Abu’l-Abbās built near al-Anbar a city which he called al-Hāshimiyyah.  His caliphate lasted four years and nine months.  He died in al-Anbar on Sunday 12th of the month of Dhu’l-hiğga in the year 136 of the Hegira and was buried in his town of al-Hāshimiyyah.  Abu’l-`Abbās was tall, handsome and with a perfect complexion.  The leader of his bodyguard was Abd al-Gabbar b. Abd-ar-Rahman al Azdi and his hāgib was the freedman Abu Assan.

CALIPHATE OF ABU JAFFAR AL-MANSUR (136-158/754-775).

1. The prince of the believers, Abu’l-Abbas left in writing a will in which he designated as his successor his brother Abu Jaffar bd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas – his mother was an umm walad [4] named Sallāmah, daughter of Bishr from Basra – and he had been entrusted to his uncle Isa b. Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas saying: “When I die, make sure that the bay’ah is given to the person designated in my writing.”  On the death of Abu’l-Abbās, Isa ibn Ali caused the Banu Hashim and the commanders who were in al-Anbar to give the bay’ah to Abu Jaffar Abd Allah b. Muhammad.  Abu Jaffar was on a pilgrimage to Mecca along with Abu Muslim.  So he let him know the news by letter. As soon as this reached him, he was recognized as caliph by Abu Muslim and the leaders who were with him, and he went to al-Anbar.  In Mesopotamia Abd Allah ibn Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas rose up, claiming the caliphate for himself. Abu Jaffar sent against him Abu Muslim, who defeated him.  Al-Mansur[5] returned to Kufa.  He then built the city of Baghdad and called it Madinat as-Salam [= “City of Peace”].  It was called “Baghdad” because there lived in that place, in a hermitage, a monk named Baghdad.  The hermitage was at the centre of a large and beautiful expanse of land.  As Abu Jaffar really liked that place, he enclosed it and he built a city there.  It was called Baghdad, after the name of the monk; or else Abu Ga’far built a city on the site where the monk Baghdad lived.

2. In the first year of the Caliphate of Abu Jaffar al-Mansur, there was made patriarch of Antioch Prophilatus[6].  He held the office for eighteen years and died.  In the twentieth year of his caliphate there was made Patriarch of Antioch Theodore.  He held the office for twenty-three years and died.  In the fourth year of his caliphate there was made patriarch of Alexandria Politianus.  He was a physician.  He held the office for forty-six years and died.  In the first year of his caliphate there was made patriarch of Constantinople Theodore.  He held the office for twenty-six years and died.  I shall not list the names of the patriarchs of Constantinople who have held the seat from Theodore’s death until I have finished composing this book.[7] The same applies to the patriarchs of Rome.  From Aghābiyūs onwards, in fact, I had no way of finding either the names or any information on the patriarchs of Rome.  In the twentieth year of the caliphate of al-Mansur there was made patriarch of Jerusalem George.  He held the office for thirty-six years and died.

3. Artābatus, king of Rum, died.  After him reigned over Rum Constantine[8], son of Leo.  In the year 158 of the Hegira al-Mansur made the pilgrimage to Mecca, where he died on the 9th of the month of Dhu’l-hiğğa, at the age of sixty-eight.  His caliphate had lasted twenty-two years.  His son Salih said the prayer for him.  He was buried in Mecca at the “Bi’r Maymun”[9].  Abu Jaffar al-Mansur was tall, dark, with a sparse beard on his cheeks but a long chin.  The leaders of his bodyguard were Abd al-Gabbar b. Abd ar-Rahman al-Azdi b. Musa b. Ka’b at-Tamimi and al-Musayyab Zuhayri az-as-Sabbi.  His hāgib was the freedman Abu’l-Khasib Marzuq.  After him his hāgib was the freedman ar-Rabi.

CALIPHATE OF AL-MAHDĪ (158-169/775-785)

1. Upon the death of al-Mansur, which took place in Mecca, Salih ibn al-Mansur and Isa ibn Musa gave the bay’ah to al-Mahdi ibn Muhammad b. Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas – his mother was Umm Musa, daughter of al-Mansur b. Abd Allah b. Sahwa al-Himyari b. ar-Ru’ayni.  The pilgrimage of the people in Mecca was led by Salih ibn al-Mansur, or, as others say, by Muhammad ibn Yahya b. Muhammad b. Ali b. Abd Allah b. al-Abbas, and at that time the people were invited to recognize al-Mahdi as caliph.  The news was brought to al-Mahdi, who was then in Baghdad, by Munāra, freedman of al-Mansur, and he was given the bay’ah in Baghdad, on the last day of the month of Dhul-higga in the year 158 .

2. Constantine (V), son of Leo (III), king of Rum, died.  After him there was made king his son Leo (IV), son of Constantine, son of Leo.  The caliphate of al-Mahdi lasted ten years, one month and sixteen days.  He died in the month of al-Muharram in the year 167 of the Hegira, at the age of thirty-nine.  His death took place at a village called ar-Rud, in the district of Māsidān, where he was also buried.  Al-Mahdi was handsome of face, body and complexion; in the right eye he had a speck of white.  The leader of his bodyguard was Nasr ibn Nusayr b. Malik al-Khuzā’i.  Then Nasr died and the leader of his bodyguard was Hamza ibn Malik b. Abd Allah b. Malik.  His hāgib was first the freedman ar-Rabi, and then the freedman al-Husayn [or al-Hasan] ibn Rashid.

CALIPHATE OF MŪSĀ AL-HĀDĪ (169-170/785-786).

1. On the death of al-Mahdi at az-Zud, in the territory of the province of Māsidān , Musa ibn al-Mahdi became caliph – his mother was an umm walad named al-Khayzuran, daughter of Ata native of Hurash in the Yemeni land – while Musa al-Hadi was in Gurgan[10]  fighting against Madar Hurmuz, lord of Tabaristan.  Harun ibn al-Mahdi persuaded the Hashemites and the commanders who were with him to give the bay’ah to his brother Musa and sent Salma al-Wasif, freedman of al-Mahdi, who served as a courier, to Musa to give him the news.  Harun ibn al-Mahdi and the commanders went to Baghdad and there awaited the arrival of Musa al-Hādi.  His caliphate lasted fourteen months.

2. Musa al-Hādi died outside Baghdad in a place called Isarmād, and was buried there.  He was twenty-five, handsome, he loved to ride and enjoyed a strong constitution.  The leader of his bodyguard was Abd Allah b. Hazim b. Huzayma at-Tamimi, and, on the dismissal of this man, Abd Allah b. Malik al-Khuzā’i.  His hāgib was ar-Rabi`, and on the death of ar-Rabi`, al-Fadl ibn ar-Rabi`.

  1. [1]I.e. Sermon
  2. [2]Leo III Isauricus.
  3. [3]Here is meant Artavasdos, to whom Leo the Isaurian had given his daughter Anna, and who became a usurper from July 741 to 2 November 742. It was Leo III who was from Marash, in fact.
  4. [4]The term indicates a slave woman who had a child with her owner.
  5. [5]I.e. Abu Jaffar.
  6. [6]Theophilatus Bar Qanbara (744-750).
  7. [7]In fact the information about these in Eutychius is doubtful.
  8. [8]Constantine V.
  9. [9]I.e. the Well of Maymun.
  10. [10]I.e. Georgia