Was there no festival of Sol on 25 December before 324 AD?

Most of us are aware that the 25th December is labelled as the “Natalis [solis] Invicti” in the Chronography of 354; specifically in the 6th part, which contains the so-called “Calendar of Philocalus” (online here), listing the state holidays.  Sol Invictus was introduced into Rome by Aurelian in 274 AD as a state cult, and it seems reasonable to suppose that this state holiday was introduced at the same time.   The Chronography also lists the saints’ days, in another calendar dating from 336 (online here), including Christmas on 25 December.  It is often supposed, therefore, that the date of Christmas was selected precisely to coincide with this solar holiday.  This theory was advanced by H. Usener in his book Das Weihnachstfest (1889, rep. 1911) with a follow-up in his posthumous article on Sol Invictus in 1905.[1]

However I have lately seen claims that, far from Christmas being located on the date of a pagan holiday, the truth is that Julian the Apostate (or someone) established a solar festival on the pre-existing date of Christmas!  These claims seem to derive from an interesting article by Steven Hijmans, “Usener’s Christmas”.[2]  Hijman is a revisionist, so it is necessary to be wary, but I thought that it might be useful to review some of the evidence.

In the Chronography of 354, in the “Filocalian calendar”, some holidays – all associated with emperors or gods – are marked by chariot races (circenses missus).  These are also in multiples of 12 races, with one exception.  The sole exception is the entry for 25 December:

 N·INVICTI·CM·XXX

Which is the natalis of Invictus (rather than Sol) and 30 races, rather than a multiple of 12.  It is, therefore, an anomalous entry.

Hijmans makes some very interesting points about this.

  • Firstly, he argues that celebrating festivals with chariot races rather than sacrifices was an innovation of Constantine, introduced after Constantine defeated Licinius in 324.  It’s not an ancient thing.  So all these chariot races were introduced then.
  • Secondly, since all the ancient festivals were multiples of 12, it is clear that no festival of Sol existed on 25 December at that time.  If it had, it too would be a multiple of 12.  Therefore it is a later addition; as the irregular naming also indicates.
  • Thirdly he speculates that this entry may not even have been present in the original copy made in 354, but added later.
  • This leaves the first definite mention of a solar festival on this date to Julian the Apostate’s Hymn to King Helios, in December 362.

This is an interesting argument indeed.  What do we make of it?

Hijmans does not detail his first point, merely referring to M. Wallraff, Christus Verus Sol (2001), p.132, “citing Eusebius”. Unfortunately the Wallraff volume is inaccessible to me.   So we have to leave this point unchecked.

The second point relies on the accurate transmission of numerals in copies of the Chronography.  I am not clear whether this is actually reliable, or whether the text printed by Mommsen – which is the basis for the online version – is a critical text or not.   The Dec. 25 date could really have read “XXXVI” for all we know.

Obviously speculation, as in the third point, is not evidence.  I would suggest that we should not infer interpolation without need.

All the same this is a very interesting point.  Is it really possible that this was the case?

  1. [1]H. Usener, “Sol Invictus”, RhM 60 (1905) pp. 465-491.
  2. [2]Steven Hijmans, “Usener’s Christmas: A contribution to the modern construct of late antique solar syncretism”, in: M. Espagne & P. Rabault-Feuerhahn (edd.), Hermann Usener und die Metamorphosen der Philologie. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 2011. 139-152.  Online here, although the online version appears to be a draft.  However Hijmans’ full thesis, with extensive plates, is online here.

2 thoughts on “Was there no festival of Sol on 25 December before 324 AD?

  1. Your initial skepticism seems warranted. Quite a backstory with the Romans — a temple to Sol Indiges said to date back to 8th century BC… more than 1000 years before 324 CE.

    Christian and scientist Isaac Newton clarified the history in his book on Daniel and the Apocalypse chapter XI — the later Christians “afterwards took up with what they found in the [Roman] Calendars.”

    An excerpt:
    “THE times of the Birth and Passion of CHRIST, with such
    like niceties, being not material to religion, were little
    regarded by the CHRISTIANS of the first age. They who
    began first to celebrate them, placed them in the cardinal
    periods of the year ; as the annunciation of the Virgin
    MARY, on the 25th of MARCH, which when JULIUS CAESAR
    corrected the Calendar was the vernal Equinox ; the feast
    of JOHN Baptist on the 24th of JUNE, which was the
    summer Solstice ; the feast of St. MICHAEL on SEPT. 29,
    which was the autumnal Equinox, and the birth of CHRIST
    on the winter Solstice, DECEMB. 25, with the feasts of St.
    STEPHEN, St. JOHN and the INNOCENTS, as near it as they
    could place them. And because the Solstice in time re-
    moved from the 25th of DECEMBER to the 24th, the 23d,
    the 22d, and so on backwards, hence some in the following
    centuries placed the birth of CHRIST on DECEMB. 23, and
    at length on DECEMB. 20 : and for the same reason they
    seem to have set the feast of St. THOMAS on DECEMB. 21,
    and that of St. MATTHEW on SEPT. 21. So also at the
    entrance of the Sun into all the signs in the JULIAN Calendar,
    they placed the days of other Saints ; as the conversion
    of PAUL on JAN. 25, when the Sun entred AQUARIUS ; St.
    MATHIAS on FEB. 25, when he entred PISCES ; St. MARK
    on APR. 25, when he entred TAURUS ; CORPUS CHRISTI
    on May 26, when he entred GEMINI ; St. JAMES on
    JULY 25, when he entred CANCER ; St. BARTHOLOMEW
    on AUG. 24, when he entred VIRGO ; SIMON and JUDE
    on OCTOB. 28, when he entred SCORPIO”

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