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Severian of Gabala, “De fide et de lege natura” – now online in English

Bryson Sewell has made the first English translation of another work by the 4th century preacher, Severian of Gabala.  This one is On faith and the natural law (De fide et de lege natura).  It is a homily on faith and works, in terms that would undoubtedly have interested Martin Luther, had he known it.

The item may be found on here, or below:

The work is public domain – do whatever you wish with it!

Another image of the Vatican rotunda

In the modern basilica of St Peter’s in Rome, the high altar is at the west end. The same was true of the basilica built in the 4th century by Constantine.

By the south door of the basilica stood two large round buildings, which ran in a line west-east.  The western-most of these was demolished as part of the construction of the new basilica, but the other stood until the 18th century, when it too was demolished. It is sometimes known as the Vatican rotunda.

To the east of them both, on the same line, stood the Vatican obelisk.   This item from ancient Egypt now stands in the piazza before St Peter’s.

The following 19th century reconstruction, depicting a magnificence that the old basilica probably never possessed, indicates what was where:


Another image of the Vatican rotunda has reached me.  This time it appears in a painting by Giorgio Vasari (d. 1574), “Pope Paul III Farnese directing the continuance of St Peter’s”, available here.  A detail of this shows the new basilica under construction, the Vatican rotunda to the right, and the obelisk (surely in the wrong place?) beyond it.

The rotunda was clearly not a particularly attractive building.  It looks as if it was a vast circular building, on top of which a structure with windows had been constructed.

One reason why the rotunda was so simple is that it was probably, originally, a massive, circular 3rd century Roman tomb.  The land around it was raised by Constantine’s architects, in order to provide a platform for the basilica; and the obelisk ended up with its lower section underground.

The archaeology clearly indicates that a circular building was constructed on this site in the early 3rd century, in the Severan period.  It is not quite clear whether the rotunda is the same building, or a replacement on the same site at a somewhat higher level.

The obelisk stood on the spina of the Circus of Gaius and Nero.  The presence of tombs on the same site indicates that the circus had gone out of use in the same period, as the Vatican cemetery spread down the hill towards it.

The archaeology is not as clear as might be desired, because the site can only be excavated with small pit trenches.  So there is much uncertainty in all this.

Lexicon: an introduction to the dictionaries of ancient Greek that survive from antiquity

Around twenty ancient and medieval lexicons/dictionaries/glossaries/encyclopedias of Greek words and their meanings have reached us, plus quite a number of minor lexica.  These works contain lists of Greek words, often dialect or otherwise unusual.  In many cases they are concerned with advising the reader how to write Attic Greek correctly.

The works exist because, after the classical period, the Greek language changed and terminology in classical authors could be a problem.  In the Roman period there was a fashion for writing the Attic Greek of 500 years earlier, and this fashion remained until 1453.  Consequently authors needed guidebooks on Attic usage.

Modern scholars are interested in these works because they preserve invaluable historical insight into the ancient world.  Every classicist will sooner or later need to refer to Hesychius, for instance.  The entries frequently preserve valuable historical information, which reaches us in no other way, not least because – unlike modern dictionaries – they include proper names, and attempt to identify the persons concerned.

The works are structured in generally the same way.  A word is given, followed by another word or words to explain it.  Sometimes a paragraph of explanation is involved.  Sometimes the authors who used the word are given.  Sometimes we are given a quotation from that author.  As most of ancient Greek literature is lost, these fragments are valuable.  The lexicon also often incidentally contains material of historical interest on the classical period.

Most of the works have been damaged, interpolated, or revised in transmission.  The tendency to copy from one into another means that material in two lexica may not be independent.

A survey of the extant texts can be found in Eleanor Dickey’s marvellous compendium of precise information, Ancient Greek Scholarship, p.87-103, which should be on the shelves of every Classicist, Byzantinist, and scholar of patristics or late antiquity.  What follows is a drastically abbreviated version of Dickey.  For bibliography use Dickey.  I only indicate where the text may be found.

The most important lexica are the Lexicon of Hesychius, and the “Suda”.

According to Hesychius’ prologue (below), lexicography begins with the creation of glossaries of unusual or obscure words.  Such glosses were compiled for a specific author, such as Homer; or for specific genres like Tragedy or Comedy.   These were known as glossai, and later as lexeis.   A writer (from 1839! use with caution) states:

The very names now given to works of the kind were unknown to the ancients. Glossarium first appears in the writings of Aulus Gellius; but from the context of the passage where it occurs, it cannot be inferred to have been used by him to denote “a book of glosses,” nor probably did it acquire that signification till some centuries after. Lexicon is, I believe, found for the first time in the Etymologicon Magnum, a compilation of which the author is unknown, but its age is ascertained not to reach farther back than the tenth century. Dictionarium and Vocabularium are terms of still later introduction.[1] (Wall, p.113)

The lexica are referenced differently to most ancient works.  They are organised as a series of words, with material about each word, and these words are usually in alphabetical order.  So a reference is to an entry.  For each entry we give the first letter of the word, followed by the number.  So Alpha 5 is the fifth word beginning with Alpha.  It is usually best to include the edition used as well (e.g. Pi 123, Adler).  Examples will be found below for entries in the Suda.

Aristophanes of Byzantium (ca. 257-180 BC)

Aristophanes of Byzantium was one of the most important Alexandrian scholars, and the teacher of Aristarchus.  He is credited with inventing the symbols for the Greek accents, and also critical signs for editing texts.  He produced editions of the classical authors Homer, Hesiod, etc.  He also produced or inspired the hypotheses, the summaries prefixed in the manuscripts to tragedies and comedies, which contain valuable information about the production of each play.  He seems to have been the first to divide lyric texts into verses, rather than writing them as prose.

Aristophanes produced a glossary-work which he called Lexeis.  The work was in several sections, such as “On words suspected of not having been said by the ancients” (i.e. post-classical words), “On the names of ages” (i.e. terms used to designate men, women, and animals of different ages), and “On kinship terms.”

Hundreds of fragments of it exist in other works, plus fragments transmitted directly in manuscripts.

Editions: A. Nauck, Aristophanis Byzantii grammatici Alexandrini fragmenta, Halle, 1848 (= TLG; online); W.J. Slater, Aristophanis Byzantii Fragmenta, Berlin, 1986, with some of the most important material, discovered later than Nauck.  Slater is the standard text.

Diogenianus (2nd c. AD)

Hesychius tells us that the first attempt, to unite the pre-existing single-author glossaries into a unfied work covering all authors, in alphabetical order, was that of Diogenianus.[2]  According to the Suda (below), he lived in the time of Hadrian.  But the Suda also states that even this was an epitome of a pre-existing compilation by Pamphilus and Zopyrion:

Of the other Heraclea, not in Pontus. Grammarian. He too lived under the emperor Hadrian. The possibility has to be considered that he is the doctor from Albace Heraclea in Caria, since he was an expert on literature in general; for I have not found it stated explicitly that he was from Heraclea in Pontus, though that is the opinion of some. His books are as follows: Miscellaneous Lexicon, alphabetically arranged, in 5 books – this is an epitome of Pamphilus’ Lexicon in 405 books and of Zopyrion’s; Anthology of Epigrams; On rivers, harbours, springs, mountains [and] mountain ridges; On Rivers, alphabetically arranged, a description in epitome; Collection and Table of Cities throughout the World; and so on.[3]

The lexicon as a whole is lost, but it was the basis for the lexicon of Hesychius (see below).  However some papyrus fragments exist: PSI[4] viii. 892; POxy. 47, 3329; a fragment on dialect glosses published by Latte in 1924[5]; and numerous fragments in scholia.

Aelius Dionysius and Pausanias (early 2nd c. AD)

These two authors, otherwise unknown, were the first to produce dictionaries of Attic.  Each produced a work listing Attic words and phrases, and these survived until at least the 12th c.   Both are lost, but substantial fragments exist.

Editions: H. Erbse, “Untersuchungen zu den attizistischen Lexika” in: Abhandlungen der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, philosophischhistorische Klasse, Jahrgang 1949, Nr. 2.  Berlin, 1950 (=TLG)

Herennius Philo (early 2nd c.) and ‘Ammonius’

In the manuscripts is a bunch of epitomes of lexica, all closely related to one another.  One, De diversis verborum significationibus, is attributed to Herennius Philo, also known as Erenius Philo and Philo of Byblos; another to an unknown Ptolemy.  All these seem to be derived from a 2nd century lexicon by Herennius Philo, a well-known author of various non-lexical works in the late 1st / early 2nd century, notably the Phoenician History, extant in fragments.  Related to these is a larger lexicon, De adfinium vocabulorum differentia, preserved under the name of “Ammonius”, otherwise unknown.  It is most likely that all these texts are derived, in a longer or shorter from, from Herennius Philo’s lexicon. The work consists of pairs of words, which are similar, and explanations of the difference between them.  The material is generally historically correct and occasionally very valuable.

The Suda entry for him is as follows:

Philo of Byblos.Grammarian. He lived in the time of those near Nero, and survived a long while – at any rate, he says that Severus, surnamed Herennius, was consul when he was 78 years old, in the 220th Olympiad. He wrote On the Purchase and Selection of Books (12 books); On Cities and the Famous People Each of them Produced (30 books); On the Reign of Hadrian (under whom Philo lived); etc. Philo was consul, surnamed Herennius, as he himself says.[6]

Editions: For “Ammonius” = K. Nickau, Ammonii qui dicitur liber de adfinium vocabulorum differentia, Leipzig, 1966 (= TLG); Epitome of Herennius = V. Palmieri, Herennius Philo: De diversis verborum significationibus, Naples, 1988 (= TLG); Epitome of Ptolemy = G. Heylbut, “Ptolemaeus περδιαφορς λξεων”, Hermes 22, 1887, p.388-410 (online); V. Palmieri, “Ptolemaeus (Ambrosianus qui dicitur) De differentia vocabulorum in litteram,” Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell’Università di Napoli 24,  1981-2, -33; K. Nickau, “Zur Geschichte der griechischen Synonymica: Ptolemaios und die Epitoma Laurentiana,” Hermes 118, 1990, 253-6.

Harpocration (late 2nd c.)

Valerius Harpocration produced a glossary to the Attic orators.  It is important as a source of fragments and unusually authentic historical information on classical Athens.  It is one of the earliest surviving glossaries.  The text survives in a number of late manuscripts, in a somewhat contaminated and abridged form known as the “full version”.  An epitome of the 9th century also exists.  There is also a papyrus fragment from the 2nd-3rd century (P.Ryl. iii, 532), plus quotations in Photius and scholia.

Editions: I. Bekker, Harpocration et Moeris (Berlin, 1833) here; W. Dindorf, Harpocrationis lexicon in decem oratores Atticos (Oxford, 1853 = TLG) vol.1 and vol.2; John J. Keaney, Harpocration: Lexeis of the Ten Orators (Amsterdam, 1991; but unreliable).

Julius Pollux (late 2nd c.)

Pollux (or Polydeuces) of Naucratis was a rhetorician of the time of Commodus, to whom he dedicated his first book before the latter had become emperor.[7]  He compiled the Onomasticon in ten books, which has come down to us in the form of an epitome, but one that has also been interpolated as well as abridged.   It is based on Classical works and Alexandrian scholarship.  It is in topic order, rather than alphabetical, reflecting the original Greek approach to these things.  It contains definitions, fragments of lost works, better readings of extant works, and much historical information, such as a famous discussion of the classical theatre and the 78 different types of masks in use for different characters in comedy, tragedy and in satyr plays.

The Suda entry for him is as follows:

Polydeuces of Naucratis. Some write that the sophist was from Ardyenna, but they are joking:  Ardyenna [is] a city of Phoenicia. He taught in Athens under the emperor Commodus, and died aged 58, having composed the following books: Onomasticon (10 books: it is a collection of different words for the same thing); informal discourses, or talks; declamations; epithalamium to Caesar Commodus; Roman Speech; Trumpet, or Musical Contest; Against Socrates; Against the People of Sinope; Panellenic Speech; Arcadian Speech; and so on.[8]

Editions: E. Bethe, Pollucis Onomasticon, Leipzig, 1900-37 (=TLG). Series: Lexicographi graeci vol. 9. (Vol.1; vol.2; vol.3).

The anti-atticist (late 2nd c.)

This is an anonymous 2nd century lexicon which is not anti-atticist, but simply uses a wider definition of Attic than most.  It is extant in a very reduced form.  Originally it listed Attic words, defined them and gave quotations, but most of the latter have gone.  It is still useful to identify lost works, historical details about Athens, and fragments of Alexandrian scholarship, as well as details of the 2nd century controversies.

Editions: Bekker, Anecdota Graeca, 1814-21, vol.1, p.75-116 (=TLG; online). This contains the first edition of many Greek scholarly works.

Phrynichus Arabius (late 2nd c.)

Two works by this extreme Atticist rhetorician survive.  His Praeparatio sophistica was originally in 37 books; an epitome and fragments survive.  The work is a collection of obscure words, and is discussed by Photius.  His Ecloga in 2 books is more or less complete, and two short epitomes of it also survive.  It consists of a list of “bad” words, usually koine, and the Attic equivalent, together with pronouncements on Attic and non-Attic usage.  It is useful as a guide to the kind of mistakes 2nd century writers were liable to make in trying to write Attic Greek.  He makes use of the anti-atticist lexicon.

Editions: PS = J. Borries, Phrynichi sophistae Praeparatio sophistica, Leipzig, 1911 (=TLG).  Ecloga = E. Fischer, Die Ekloge des Phrynichos, Berlin, 1974 (=TLG).  English summary and discussion of findings in Slater’s review of it in Gnomon 49, 1977, 258-62.

Moeris (3rd c.?)

A lexicon containing almost a thousand entries alphabetised by the first letter, consisting of “this is Attic, but the other Greeks use that”.

Editions: D. Hansen, Das attizistische Lexikon des Moeris, Berlin, SGLG 9, 1998.

Philemon (3-2 c. BC) and Philemon (ca. 200 AD)

A glossographer named Philemon lived in the 3rd-2nd century BC and wrote a gloss on Attic words.  It is lost but fragments survive in Athenaeus, and in ‘Ammonius’.  Another Philemon of the same name (neither related to any other person of the same name) lived ca. 200 AD and composed a work in iambics, of which two brief extracts survive.  These consist of lists of non-Attic words and their equivalents.

Editions (of the second writer):  Frag. 1 = R. Reitzenstein, Geschichte der griechischen Etymologika: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Philologie in Alexandria und Byzanz, Leipzig, 1897, p. 392–6.; Frag. 2 = F.G. Osann, Philemonis grammatici quae supersunt, 1821.  Study: L. Cohn, “Der Atticist Philemon,” Philologus, 57 (1898) p.353–67.

Orus and Orion (5th c.)

These two grammarians are confused even in the Byzantine period, and the confusion continues to modern times.  Both wrote a number of scholarly works.

Orus was born in Alexandria, lived in Constantinople, and is associated with Miletus for unknown reasons.   Four works survive. (1) An Attic lexicon, aimed at distinguishing classical from koine, rather than Attic as such.  It was written in opposition to Phrynichus, and is based on classical sources.  But it is extant only in fragments, mainly from the lexicon of Zonaras. (2) A manual on orthography, of which we possess a substantial excerpt on the use of the iota subscript.  It gives a list of words (all from the second half of the alphabet), and indicates whether each uses it or not. Each is often accompanied by a quotation from a classical work, sometimes lost, and fragments of earlier scholarship. (3) A short treatise on words with several meanings, preserved in excerpts. (4) Another short treatise, on ethnic names, gathered from Stephanus and the Etymologicum genuinum.

Only one of the works of Orio(n) of Thebes survives, an etymological lexicon in alphabetical order.  This exists in three abbreviated versions, one of considerable bulk, the others known as the Werfer and the Koes excerpts. It preserves much earlier scholarship, including portions of Aristonicus on Homer.  We also have fragments of a florilegium by Orion.

Editions: Orus: (1) Alpers, Das attizistische Lexikon des Oros: Untersuchung und kritische Ausgabe der Fragmente (Berlin; SGLG 4), 1981 (in TLG). (2) H. Rabe, “Lexicon Messanense de iota ascripto,” in: Rheinisches Museum 47 (1892),. p.404-13. (TLG).  (3, 4) R. Reitzenstein, Geschichte der griechischen Etymologika: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Philologie in Alexandria und Byzanz, 1897, p.316-35 and 335-47.  Orion: F.W. Sturz, Etymologicum Graecae linguae Gudianum, 1818, p.611-17 (=Werfer excerpts); and: F.W. Sturz, Orionis Thebani Etymologicon, 1820 (=Koes extracts).  [The long version is supposedly also published in Sturz, but I don't see it.]

Cyrillus (5th c.)

Numerous manuscripts exist of a lexicon attributed to Cyrillus, or Cyril, and material from it has also been interpolated into Hesychius.  The Cyril in question is probably intended to be Cyril of Alexandria, and may have had some association with him.  The lexicon contains biblical glosses – words and explanations.  Most of it is unpublished.

Editions: A. B. Drachmann, Die Überlieferung des Cyrillglossars, Copenhagen, 1936 in: Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Historisk-filologiske Meddelelser 21.5. (excerpts only); J.A. Cramer, Anecdota Graeca e codd. manuscriptis bibliothecae regiae Parisiensis, Oxford, 1839-41, vol. 4, 177-201 (only a very abbreviated version).

Hesychius of Alexandria (5-6th c.)

This is the most important of the lexica.  A corrupt, abridged and interpolated 15th century manuscript in Venice (Marc. xxxx) is the sole witness to a text by an otherwise unknown Hesychius of Alexandria.  The prefatory letter tells us that it is based on the 2nd century lexicon of Diogenianus (now lost), but supplemented from other lost lexical writers including Aristarchus, Heliodorus, Apion and Herodian.

It consists of a list of poetic and dialect words, phrases and short proverbs.  It includes proper names.  Each word is followed by a high-point, and then some words which are equivalent, or abbreviated from the original explanation by Hesychius.  The words themselves are given in the inflected form, complete with prefix - the one in which they appeared in the text from which the original lexicographer extracted them -, not the base form, and in alphabetical order based on the first three letters.  Thus an entry should be referenced as “a 1234 (Latte)” which would be the 1234th word under alpha in the edition of Latte.  (References are sadly often given in much less helpful forms).

The work was severely abridged, omitting most indications of sources for the words.  In addition about 33% of the entries are interpolated from the lexicon of Cyrillus (see below), or from other sources.  These interpolations are early, since the Cyrillus material was already present by the 8th century.

The opening words of the preface were translated long ago by Wall[9], and are as follows:

Hesychius, a grammarian of Alexandria, to his companion Eulogius, greeting.—Many others also collected in the order of the letters the ‘words’ of the Ancients, O most beloved Eulogius: some, however, those only of Homer, as Apion, and Apollonius, son of Archibius; some, those separately of the Comic, or those of the Tragic authors, as Theon and Didymus, and other such compilers; and no one, all the words of the different writers together. But after these arose a certain Diogenianus, a man of industry and taste, who, having brought together the forementioned books and all the words dispersed through all, united into one compilation in alphabetic order all of them; I mean, the Homeric, and the Comic, and the Tragic terms, and those which occur in the Lyric poets and in the Orators; nor these only, but also such as are to be found in the works of the Physicians and of the Historians. In short, no word, as far as we are aware of, did he omit, whether of the Ancients, or of the writers of his own time.

Editions: K. Latte, P. Hansen, I. Cunningham, Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon (4 vols).  The previous best edition was by M. Schmidt, Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon (1858-68 = TLG); vol.1 [Α-Δ], 2, 3[Λ-Ρ], 4[Σ-Ω], 5; the 1 volume editio minor by Schmidt (1867) should be avoided.

Stephanus of Byzantium (6th c.)

A grammarian who taught in Constantinople in the 6th c. AD, he composed a gigantic geographical lexicon in more than 50 books, of which we have only an epitome, some fragments, plus a stray set of 8 pages of the original text.  Originally it gave detailed information of all kinds on place-names and ethnic names.  Sources included Herodian, Orus, Pausanias, Strabo and some early Homeric scholia, plus many lost works.

Editions: J. A. F. A. Meineke, Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, Berlin, 1849 (=TLG).  “Standard edition but not ideal”[10]

The Synagogue (Συναγωγὴ λέξεων χρησίμων) (8-9th c.)

This lexicon is also known as the Lexicon Bachmannianum, or the Lexicon Bekkeri VI.  It was originally based on the lexicon of Cyrillus, and other sources are also known.  It was composed in the 8-9th c., but more material was added later.  It is often ignored, since it duplicates other material, and is interesting more as a guide to how lexica evolved than for its contents.

Editions: I. Bekker, Anecdota Graeca, vol.1, Leipzig, 1814, p.319ff. (online); L. Bachmann, Anecdota, vol. 1, Leipzig, 1828, p.3ff. (online); I. Cunningham, Synagoge: Συναγωγὴ λέξεων χρησίμων: Texts of the Original Version and of MS. B (Berlin; SGLG 10), 2003.

Photius (9th c.)

Photius, patriarch of Constantinople and author of the Bibliotheca, and many other works, also composed a large lexicon.  It is mostly concerned with prose words.  Some entries are substantial paragraphs, referencing authors and quoting from them.  The work derives mainly from late lexica like Cyrillus, but indirectly preserves much earlier scholarship, such as Diogenianus, Aelius Dionysius and Pausanias.  It is a source of fragments of lost works.  Only part of the work was known until 1959 when a complete text was discovered in a monastery.  This is not completely published, however.

Editions: Theodoridis, Photii Patriarchae Lexicon, 1982- (=TLG) has begun the new edition. Vol. 1 [Alpha - Delta] (Berlin, 1982) [limited preview]; vol. 2 [Epsilon - Mu] (Berlin, 1998) [limited preview].  Of the older material, use R. Porson, Photii Lexicon e codice Galeano, 1823 (=TLG. online) rather than that of A. Nauck (1864-5).

Lexicon αἱμωδεῖν (9-10th c.)

This is a small lexicon, so called after its first entry “αἱμωδεῖν”.  Contains fairly detailed entries, based in part on lost scholarly material for which it is sometimes useful.

Editions: Andrew R. Dyck, Epimerismi Homerici, Berlin; SGLG 5, 1983-95, vol. 2, p.825-1016.

“Suidas” / “The Suda” (late 10th c.)

The Suda is a huge dictionary/encyclopedia, compiled in the late 10th century.  From the 12th until the mid-20th century it was known as Suidae Lexicon, “the lexicon of Suidas”, but it is now generally thought that the word Σοῦδα in the manuscripts is the title, not the author, although not everyone agrees.

The work consists of around 30,000 entries of various sorts; some are definitions, some are articles like those of an encyclopedia.  The work is ordered alphabetically by pronunciation (so vowels that sound the same are gathered together).  It is related to the lexicon of Photius, and probably drew directly upon it.

The work is of great importance for our knowledge of antiquity because it is based on a vast array of lost sources.  These sources are transcribed intact and are often identifiable.  In the main they were lexica and other scholarly compilations of late antiquity, such as those of Harpocratian and Diogenianus.  These in turn preserved scholarship from hellenistic and even classical times.  The plays of Aristophanes and the scholia on them are especially well represented.  It is a source of important historical and poetic fragments.

The work is particularly useful as a guide to classical and later writers since it includes material from a lost dictionary of literary biography by Hesychius of Miletus, and indeed states that it is an epitome of that work.[11]  In particular it is our main source for the titles of lost works, and how much various authors wrote.

Editions: A. Adler, Suidae lexicon, Leipzig, 1928-38 (=TLG); The Suda Online (with English translation).

Byzantine Etymologica

A number of very large, anonymous Byzantine texts known as the etymological lexica have been preserved.  The entries are arranged in alphabetical order.  Each entry consists of a word, followed by some kind of explanation: which may be a definition, an etymology, or some other type of explanation of usage, including quotations from sources.

The oldest of these is the Etymologicum genuinum, of the 9th century, preserved in two poor 10th c. manuscripts.  Descended from this, in its original form, are almost all the other lexica of this type, of which the most important are:

  • The Etymologicum Magnum (12th c.)
  • The Etymologicum Gudianum (11th c.)
  • The Etymologicum Symeonis (12th c.)
  • The Etymologicum (Florentinum) parvum is somewhat older but too small to be very useful.

The sources for the material are generally 2nd c. AD and later, such as Herodian, Orus, Orion, Theognostus, Choeroboscus, plus scholia, and the Epimerismi Homerici.  These in turn were compilations of Hellenistic scholarship, and so preserve numerous fragments of lost classical literature.

Editions: A mess of partial modern editions.  Complete versions are old. EM: T. Gaisford, Etymologicon magnum, Oxford, 1848 (online at BSB). EG: F.W. Sturz, Etymologicum Graecae linguae Gudianum, Leipzig, 1818. (= TLG) (online); R. Pintaudi, Etymologicum parvum quod vocatur, Milan, 1973 (= TLG).  ES is largely unpublished.

Zonaras (13th c.)

The lexicon of Zonaras is an enormous lexicon from the 13th c., passing under the name of the 11th-12th c. historian.   It draws freely on a wide range of earlier scholarship.  It is organised first alphabetically, by the first two letters, and then by grammatical category.  Some entries are just a word and its definition, but others consist of long paragraphs with quotations from earlier writers.  The work has been little studied, and some of that little is valueless.

Editions: J.A.H. Tittmann, Iohannis Zonarae Lexicon, Leipzig, 1808 (=TLG) Online here.  The only edition, hence it is sometimes called Lexicon Tittmannianum.

Other lexica

There are a number of important glossaries on individual authors. For Homer, those of Apollonius Sophista, and of Apion; there are Erotian’s, and Galen’s glossaries on the Hippocratic corpus;  Plato: the lexicon of Timaeus; and some anonymous lexica on Herodotus.  A number of other minor lexica such as the 14th c. Lexicon Vindobonensis are known from late antiquity or the Byzantine period.  There is also a mass of lexicographical material in papyri or medieval mss.

Editions: A. Nauck, Lexicon Vindobonense, St. Petersburg, 1867. (Online)
Studies of Greek lexicography: Reitzenstein, Geschichte der griechischen Etymologika, Leipzig, 1897 (online); Enzo Degani, “La lessicografia,” in G. Cambiano, L. Canfora, and D. Lanza (edd.), Lo spazio letterario della grecia antica, Rome, 1995, vol.2. p.505–27; Herbert Hunger, Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner, Munich; Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft, 12.5.i and 12.5.ii, 1978; vol. 2, p.33-50.
Lists of editions: H. Erbse, Scholia graeca in Homeri Iliadem (scholia vetera), Berlin, 1969-88; the TLG canon.

  1. [1] Charles William Wall, “An essay on the nature, age and origin of the Sanscrit writing and language”, in: Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 18 (1839), p.65-152.  The statement is on p.113. Online here.
  2. [2] Hesychius, Prologue. (below)
  3. [3] Suda, delta,1140. Adler edition.
  4. [4] Papiri greci e latini, Pubblicazioni della società italiana per la ricerca dei papiri greci e latini in Egitto, Florence.
  5. [5] K. Latte, “Glossographika,” Philologus, 80: 136-75. Repr. in Kleine Schriften (Munich 1968): 631–66.
  6. [6] Suda, phi,447. Adler edition.
  7. [7] To Commodus as “Caesar” rather than Augustus: see the opening greeting here.
  8. [8] Suda, pi,1951. Adler ed.
  9. [9] Charles William Wall, “An essay on the nature, age and origin of the Sanscrit writing and language”, in: Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 18 (1839), p.65-152.  The material is on p.110, as part of a general and interesting introduction to lexica. Online here.
  10. [10] Dickey, p.308.
  11. [11] Adler ref: eta,611: “Son of Hesychius the lawyer and of Philosophia. Lived during the reign of the emperor Anastasius. He wrote a biographical dictionary or Index of notable literary figures, of which this book [i.e. the Suda itself] is an epitome. Also a Chronicle of history, which work he divided into 6 diastemata; for such is the name given to each book. In these volumes the deeds of the Roman emperors are presented in chronological order and the mighty deeds of powerful rulers [arranged] by nation and the achievements of Byzantium up until the emperor Anastasius who was known as Dicorus. In the Index of famous literary figures he mentions not one of the teachers of the Church; from this [fact] we may suppose that he was not a Christian, but full of vain pagan labour. Also [sc. attested is] ἡσυχῇ , [meaning the same as] ἡσυχῶς ["gently/quietly"].[8]

“Glossa ordinaria” on 1, 2 and 3 John now available in English

The Glossa Ordinaria is a medieval Latin commentary on the bible, composed of excerpts from earlier writers (including the Fathers).  John Litteral writes to say that he has setup a project to translate it, here.

The results are now starting to appear.  The translation of the section on 1 John, 2 John and 3 John into English has now appeared.  The book is available on Amazon here, for the trivial sum of $10.

Dr Litteral tells me that his team will start work on a portion of Cramer’s Catena on the epistles next.  This is very good news indeed, for the catenas are nearly inaccessible, for practical purposes.  To produce a critical edition is tough; to master the contents impossible except for those with excellent Byzantine Greek and plenty of time.  In the modern academic environment, the latter is nearly impossible to supply.  A first step in remedying the lack is to provide serviceable translations; and this is what John hopes to do.

Translation of Bar Hebraeus “Chronicon Ecclesiasticum” to appear later this year

David Wilmshurst writes to tell me that he has reached agreement with Gorgias Press and that his translation of the Chronicon Ecclesiasticum of Bar Hebraeus will appear in print before the end of 2014.

This is excellent news.  All our knowledge of Syriac literature – who wrote what, and when – is based on this work.  It is a scandal that it has remained untranslated for so long.

Jerome: God hates the sacrifices of heretics

An interesting quote came my way on Twitter:

God hates the sacrifices of these [i.e., heretics] and pushes them away from Himself, and whenever they come together in the name of the Lord, He abhors their stench, and holds His nose…

Fortunately the tweeter had a reference:

Comment in Amos Proph, P.L. 25 1053-1054.

Those are dramatic words.  But the first question with any quotation is the same: is it accurate?

The PL 25 is online, and col. 1053 is here (or here).  As soon as we open it, and find ourselves in the Commentary on Amos (Commentariorum In Amos Prophetam Libri Tres), book 2, chapter 5, we find that the context is the well-known words of God through Amos, vv. 21-22, to the corrupt Israelites, “I hate your festivals…”.

The words are these (1053 D):

Horum Deus odit sacrificia, et a se projicit, et quotiescumque sub nomine Domini fuerint congregati, detestatur foetorum eorum, et claudit nares suas.

Jerome is, then, simply addressing the words of Amos to the heretics also, and with good reason.

The phrasing is shocking to our polite sensibilities.  We tend to think of “heretics” as us: people of sincerity and goodwill, who merely happen to hold some mistaken opinion, perhaps even unknowingly, and are sought out by malicious and narrow-minded people bent on condemnation.

But a better example in our own time is the Caiaphas kind of churchman, full of his own “piety”, full of “holy” phrases, yet ever eager to acquiesce in, or to advance vice of any and every kind, so long as it is to his liking.  The heretic has contempt for Christian teaching.  Our Lord condemned such people in the strongest terms, and they are not absent from our own day, as anyone who has followed the sad story of the American episcopalian church will know.  The problem is rather that we are far too reluctant to identify these infiltrators as such.

The ancient term still has value.  It is a characteristic of these people today that they demand the name of Christian for themselves.  In consequence they tend to scream at anyone who dares to suggest that some people might not, in fact, be Christians.  In fact it is a fingerprint of the heretic that they refuse to allow anyone to suggest that someone else is not a Christian.  More than one Christian has found himself censored, when responding to an attempt to point out that such and such a view – happily accepted by the heretics – is not Christian.

Worth remembering.  The words of scripture do have a contemporary application, and we mustn’t let ourselves be intimidated in applying it when it is earned.

A change to comment policy

The quantity of spam that is slipping past Akismet is now large enough that I feel obliged to change the comment setting.  From here all comments will be held foe moderation unless I have previously approved a comment by you.

I wish that all the policemen busily trawling twitter for thoughtcrime would spend as much time on spammers.

John the Lydian’s thoughts on the Roman months: June is now online in English

Another chunk of John the Lydian, De Mensibus – on the Roman Months – book 4 is now available!  Find it here:

As ever, full of abtruse Roman customs, and copiously and learnedly annotated.

Have fun!

Basil the Great, On holy baptism – now online in English

A correspondent writes to say that he has discovered a forgotten translation of Basil the Great’s Sermon 13: On holy baptism (In Sanctum Baptismum).

He found it as an appendix in an 1843 American volume of Catholic anti-protestant polemic on the subject, issued by a certain Francis Patrick Kenrick who was later to become Archbishop of Baltimore.

I’ve scanned the text: it is here.

The translator went a bit mental part way through and started spouting cod-Jacobean English.  I have removed such excrescences from the text, but otherwise left it alone.

The use made of the work by Kenrick is perhaps the opposite of that intended by Basil.  It is pretty plain, reading the sermon, that Basil is dealing with people who are Christians mainly in observance and socially, with a real component of nominalism.  His task, an unpleasant one, is to stop them playing games with the church and either commit or not.  The point of commitment – for them – is baptism.

By contrast Kenrick is dealing with 19th century baptists.  In the main these were people fully committed to Christ, but with a genuine scruple about blasphemy in applying baptism to people who didn’t believe.  It is quite unlikely that Basil would have preached such a sermon to them.  I fear that Mr Kenrick’s work probably fell on rather deaf ears, therefore.  It does very little good to anyone to make St Basil - or any of the fathers – into a proponent of superstition, when he was in fact engaged in trying to overthrow it.

Nevertheless we all benefit from that forgotten work, because Kenrick stopped to translate Basil for us all.  Thank you, sir: and thank you also Ted Janiszewski for finding it for us.

A Coptic life of Severian of Gabala (!)

Severian of Gabala was the enemy of John Chrysostom.  The latter’s importance necessarily involved Severian’s eclipse, and all the accounts of their quarrel are written from John’s point of view.  Or so I thought.  But an email from Albocicade, a correspondent of this blog, reveals a “Life of St. Severian of Gabala”, in the Arabic Synaxary of the monophysites.

It is understandable that the Copts would preserve some kind of account.  For although they also revere Chrysostom, it is also a fact that Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, was also an enemy of Chrysostom, and is also revered as a saint.  The rehabilitation of Severian is a necessary consequence of that of Theophilus.

Interestingly there is a mention of a Montanist congregation at Gabala.  It is perhaps doubtful that the life is anything but fiction, however.

This text was published by René Basset with a French translation in the Patrologia Orientalis 1 (1907).  It is short, so I shall give an English version from the French here.  The life of Severian follows that of “Saint Dioscorus”.

    *    *    *    *

7th day of Tut (= 4th September)

On this day rested in the Lord the Holy and Virtuous Father Severian, bishop of Gabala.  The name of his father was Valerian.  He studied profane philosophy at Athens, and went to Caesarea where he studied the sciences.  Then he returned to Rome, where he studied the ecclesiastical sciences, and learned by heart all the ancient and modern books, in a few years.  After this his parents died, leaving him a considerable and immeasurable fortune.  He wished to give this to Christ, in order to receive a hundred-fold reward in its place.  He built a hospice for strangers, the unfortunate, and the poor; he placed attendants there, to receive the money for the poor, such that even today these places are called by his name.  His uncle was the governor of the town; he complained about him to the emperor Honorius, because he had dissipated his fortune saying, “I give it to our Lord Christ in order to receive the equivalent [in heaven], as he said in his gospel.”  The emperor admired this, and ordered him not to separate himself from him in his palace, to go with him to church and to pass the entire night in prayer.  For the emperor also was a righteous man: he led the life of a monk and wore a hair-shirt under his royal robe.  The patriarch (pope) of Rome was then St. Innocent; he learned from God that Severian was doing good to huge numbers, and began to honour and venerate him.  The saint [Severian] was loved by the masses; his reputation reached Theodosius, who was reigning at Constantinople.  When the saint saw the respect in which he was held, he feared that his trouble was in vain, and decided to leave secretly.  An angel of the Lord appeared to him, and ordered him to go to the town of Gabala, where he would lead many souls.  He left by night, accompanied by his disciple Theodosius, to whom he had given the monastic habit.  The Lord sent him a light in the form of a wheel which preceded him until he arrived at Gabala.  There was there a convent at the head of which was a holy man.  He learned in a dream about St. Severian.  He went out to meet him, and made known to him his vision, and the saint was extremely surprised.  His history followed him to this place, and an innumerable crowd gathered around him.  The emperor Theodosius sent abbots to grow the convents which he founded, after an angel of the Lord had determined the place where they should be.  These became a refuge for many souls, and the Lord worked by him many miracles.

Among these, the daughter of the governor of Gabala had a demon in her, who said to her father, “If you make Severian leave this place, I will go out of her.”  When the father went to find Severian and told him about the matter, asking him to heal her, the saint wrote a note in which he said, “In the name of Jesus, the Christ, you shall go out of her.”

A troop of Samaritans and other people attached themselves to the soldiers, and wanted to get into the convent.  The saint made darkness come upon them and they remained for three days without sight, until they implored him with many tears, and he sent them away.

Likewise all the monks who were under his authority prayed over anyone who was ill and they were healed.  He encouraged and instructed each of them so well that they became like angels.

The bishop of this town was named Philadelphus.  He learned in a dream sent by God that the saint would occupy his place.  He sent to almost all the communities and recommended them to support him in order (to fulfil) the intention of God and, following the opinion of the righteous rulers and leaders, he was made bishop and began with a great struggle to protect his flock.

In that town there was a Jew named Saktar, very learned and proud that he was possessed of the law of Moses.  He went to find the saint and disputed with him, but no word was able to come out of his mouth.  Then the Lord informed him [Severian] in a dream that this man [Saktar] would be part of the blessed flock.  When Saktar returned to his house, he saw in a dream places of torment, and a voice saying, “Here are the faithless Jews and those who don’t believe in our Lord the Messiah.”  The next day he went to find St. Severian, fell at his feet and asked to become a Christian.  He baptised him, him and all the people of his house.  When the other Jews learned that their leader had become a Christian, they believed, were baptised, and became Christians as if they had been born into the religion of Christ.

Likewise there is another sect of magicians who are called Montanists.  When the saint asked them to enter the faith, they did not do so, because they had confidence in their art.  In fact, when a man came towards them, they would throw dust in his face and he would see nothing.  Then the saint asked our Lord the Messiah, with many tears, to bring them into the holy flock.  The Lord sent upon them, but not on the Christians, various illnesses like those with which the Egyptians were affected before.  They recognised that this was the consequence of their disobedience towards the saint.  They went to find him and became Christians.  The town formed but a single flock.  The demon screamed in pain and cried out, in the form of an old man with torn clothing, “I am tormented on all sides: Egypt is filled with holy monks; at Rome, there is Innocent; at Constantinople, John Chrysostom; This place remains to me, and Severian has taken it from me.”

The Persians sent a message to the kings Theodosius and Arcadius, wishing to make war.  They sent the letter to the saint.  When he learned of it, he wrote to them to comfort them: “We belong to Christ; our realm comes from Christ; we have therefore no need of arms, lances or men”; and he reminded them one by one of all the things that God had done to kings, before the forty-day fast; and the Persians went away.

As for the business of John Chrysostom with the empress, the saint came with all the bishops.  He addressed all kinds of remonstrances to the empress, saying that John Chrysostom had done nothing which deserved exile.  When she did not listen, he returned to his town.

He composed discourses, exhortations and sermons which are copied in the church down to the present.  He grew old and attained the age of 100.  Ten days before he died, an angel of the Lord appeared to him and invited him to leave.  He made his recommendations to his flock, and fell asleep in the Lord.  His death happened two years before that of St. John Chrysostom, who died the same year as Epiphanius of Cyprus.  The body of the blessed Severian was buried fittingly; funeral orations and panegyrics were made, and he was laid to rest in the tomb.  May his prayer be with us.  Amen.