Sever J. Voicu’s 1990 article on Severian of Gabala

It is hard to do much work on Severian of Gabala for lack of access to the basic materials; texts, translations and studies.  The list of works in the Clavis Patrum Graecorum is useful, but hard to access and split across various entries and sub-sections.  The most important article on the subject is, and remains – after 24 years –  Sever J. Voicu, “Severien de Gabala,” Dictionnaire de spiritualite 14 (Paris, 1990), 752-63.  Fortunately Dr Voicu has given permission for a transcript, made by a correspondent, to appear here.[1]  Here it is, in Word .doc format:

Dr Voicu adds, “It is rather outdated, but no other comprehensive entry about Severian of Gabala has been written since.”  Any errors are, of course, my fault and nobody else’s.  I note that a certain amount of reformatting was introduced, but it seems to make it clearer.

I hope that this will be readable via Google Translate even for those without a command of French.  I hope to prepare an English translation of at least some of it.

  1. [1]I am not entirely certain as to the ownership of this article – if anybody believes that they have property in it, please contact me.

3 thoughts on “Sever J. Voicu’s 1990 article on Severian of Gabala

  1. Google Translate seems to have no problem with French (all 18 pages), although the bibliography may be more problematic:

    Severian Gabala
    Bishop † before 431.

    Excerpt from the article “Severian of Gabala”
    in the Dictionary of spirituality, Volume 14
    (Paris, 1990), 752-63, by S. J. Voicu.

    1 Life. -2. Works. -3. Doctrine.

    1 Life.
    Several historical sources tell us about Severian. But it does not take away a meager booty playing ecclesiastical Stories Socrates (PG 67, 696-736) and Sozomen (ed. J. Bidez, Berlin, 1960, p. 362-63, 370, 373-75 ), the Dialogus of uita Chrysostomi Palladius (ed. A.-M. Malingrey and Ph. Leclercq, SC 341-342, 1988), codex 59 of the Bibliotheca of Photius (ed. R. Henry, vol. 1 1959, p. 52-57), hagiographic texts published by Halkin (1977), the manual Gennadius of Marseilles. Indeed, except for the last, all these documents deal with Severian only about his stay in Constantinople during the episcopate of John Chrysostom (398-404) and some subsequent events, all within a decade . Moreover, even if their story is probably true, these sources are less reliable when depict feelings and motivations, because they can be suspected of having blackened opponents of Chrysostom to better defend it.

    Furthermore, the manual Gennadius, disappointingly brevity, slides over the dispute with Chrysostom: “Severianus, Gabalensis episcopus ecclesiae, in Divinis Scripturis eruditus and in homiliis declamator admirabilis leaking. Unde to frequent ab Episcopo Iohanne and Arcadio imperatore ad faciendum sermonem Constantin olim evocabatur op … “(De viris illustribus 21, ed. Richardson EC, TU 14/1, Leipzig, 1896, p. 70).

    Little about the origin of Severian known: nothing on the place and date of his birth, nothing about the studies he could do; Syriac was his mother tongue, and sources ironically on his master’s and his pronunciation of Greek. He was already bishop of Gabala (now Jeblé), a small town on the Syrian coast (see DGHE, t. 19, col. 501-05), when about 398-399, he arrived in Constantinople, where he was welcomed by John Chrysostom. If, as the want the sources, he was moved by the desire to match the oratorical success of one of his countrymen, Antiochus of Ptolemais (DHGE, vol. 3, col. 707-08), we must recognize that achieved its goal. All data location that can be gleaned in his homilies refer to an audience of Constantinople, perhaps not always very attentive, but often quite important. The sources also speak of his associates of the court and its relationship with the Empress Eudoxia.

    In any case, it is Severian Chrysostom entrusted the care of the church Constantinopolitan in 401, when his long journey in Asia Minor. This charge will be the source of a bitter dispute with the deacon Serapion, also designated by Chrysostom to deal with ecclesiastical affairs. Reconciliation short to be held back from Chrysostom has earned us the only homily Severian that is dated with certainty, the pace of Sermo (May-June 401?).

    Two years later, in the conflict between the bishop of Constantinople and Theophilus of Alexandria, Severian is on the side of the accusers. It will be among the witnesses at the Synod of the Oak (autumn 403), which will decide the first exile of Chrysostom. Having left the capital on the return thereof, Severian reappear there at the beginning of 404; Antiochus and Acacius of Beroe, some time later he will challenge to the emperor the validity of the reinstatement of Chrysostom and get the permanent exile.

    The last known episode of his life, in the same year 404, his intervention in the succession of Flavian of Antioch, where, still with Antiochus and Acacius, he devoted priest Porphyry hostile Chrysostom. The date of his death is unknown. Gennadius said: “moritur iuniore Theodosio, filio suo in baptismo, imperante”, that is to say between 408 and 450; Severian was already dead but probably at the time of the Council of Ephesus (431), most likely before the death of Atticus of Constantinople (425 cf. Altendorf 1959, p 52;. Aubineau 1983, p 13, n 14.. ). In the Arab and Ethiopian synaxaries include mention of Severian featuring a fictional biography whose historical value is probably zero (Basset 1905: 240-46;. Colin 1986: 364-71;. Budge 1928, t 1. , p. 23-27).

    His memory has been fading in Greek setting, as in the direct tradition all his homilies were transmitted most often as the Chrysostom. This “irony of history”, in which the ancient sources maintain total silence, was raised again, but the explanations offered are unconvincing. There is no suspect, for example, that Severian ever judged heresy; has not shown that he had made remarks offensive or theological works that have undergone a doctrinal revision. The hypothesis of a kind of posthumous revenge because of his actions during the conflict with Chrysostom defies logic why then save his writings and why shelter under the name of former opponent?

    Two data are available that guide us toward an alternative, more acceptable:

    1) the extent of the problem indicates that the change in allocation has affected the whole body of homiletics Severian;

    2) the probable date of the change is half of the 6th century, as the earliest attestation is the quotation from the homily De fide in the Armenian anthology Seal of Faith (early 7th century.). The attribution to Chrysostom would be written some time after the condemnation of Severus of Antioch (536), with which Severian was confused sometimes. In this case, it would not be a memoriae damnatio but precisely the contrary, the desire to save his stake homiletics heritage.

    Further details can be found on the life of Severian in Zellinger (1916, p 2-7.) Dürks (1917, p 11-17.) Baur (1930, especially p 134-42;. 1960, especially p 15564.) G. Bardy (DTC, t 14/2, col 2000-06..) Aubineau (1983, p 11-17.) for the Synod of the Oak, see also Hefele and Leclercq (1908, p. 137-54).

    2 Works.
    The only previous record we have of the literary heritage of Severian, that of Gennadius of Marseille, says “in Divinis Scripturis eruditus and in homiliis declamator admirabilis leaking Legi … eius Expositionem in epistulam ad Galatas and De baptismo and Epiphaniae sollemnitate libellum gratissimum “(ed. Richardson, p. 70). In both parts listed must probably see fragments on Gal. published by Staab and the homily In theophaniam. According to Gennadius, Severian has practiced only two genres that we know: the comment scripture and homiletics. Other than that, his record is too vague and too short to be useful. Indeed, according to the chains that deliver, Severian commented all the Pauline corpus; we shall return to the importance of his legacy homiletics.

    However, you must first highlight the confusing complexity of the manuscript transmission of his writings, which from the earliest evidence is problematic. If Theodoret
    Eranistes cites in its authentic homily, he does it next to a piece of pseudochrysostomienne Cappadocian origin. In his treatise Ad Dominus, Cyril of Alexandria inserts as the Severian a quote from a pseudo-Athanasian book, De incarnatione contra Arianos. Later confusion and contradictory data are only multiplying.
    In Greek tradition directly called Severian is rare: it covers only thirteen homilies, many apocryphal; at the same time all the homilies in Greek whose authenticity has been recognized allocated almost always John Chrysostom.
    Latin discloses a Severi (e) No bishop (usually without indicating the seat), but, for reasons that defy explanation, in most cases it is believed to sermons of Peter Chrysologus and others Latin (cf. A. Olivar, Los sermons of San Pedro Crisologo. ‘estudio critico, Montserrat, 1962, especially p. 101-23).
    Armenian, Severian is often confused with Eusebius of Emesa.
    The Greek channels on Octateuque place several fragments from cycle De mundi Creatione as the Serapion of Thmuis (cf. Zellinger 1916, p. 35-36), etc.

    Before a transmission such it is not surprising that after three quarters of a century of research we do not have a definitive list of the works of Severian. The one we propose is trying to avoid some early assignments or unfounded or excessive shyness other lists, to pave the way for publishing what overall preparing a group of researchers assembled by Cornelis Datema. To affirm or reject the authenticity of the documents that have not yet been published work, we founded us, without prejudice, on the presence or absence of stylistic trademarks listed in Voicu 1983-1984.

    Since 1916, when the first volume of Zellinger, Severian has been the subject of several works together: Dürks in 1917, yet in 1926 Zellinger and Marx in 1939 and Altendorf in 1957 The results of this research and number extent any items are summarized adequately in the manual CPG dating from 1974, however, since, in fifteen years, several studies have refined and expanded our knowledge of the literary heritage of Severian, it requires at least one bid updated bibliography and allocation issues. This update only applies homilies. For comments on the Pauline corpus is always the manual authoritative CPG 4219 (including comments on the problems editing Staab 1933, p 213-351;. For a small supplement, see Lienhard 1983, p. 352).

    In the following authentic homilies will be divided into three categories: those unknown GC, those that are contained in the notice about Severian and those rows from Pseudochrysostomica. To end this section, it will discuss three pieces of dubious authenticity and some faulty attributions, they have the support of the manuscript tradition (direct or indirect), or are the result of modern conjectures. Without exception, we will leave aside the discovery of new manuscripts witnesses (eg GCC IV and V, published after the notice of GICs).

    1 THREE OF UNKNOWN homilies GC.

    -in Iudaeos and Graecos, inc. “Palin Ioudaïkè kakia” (ms Jerusalem Sabait. 27 f. 152r-162V).
    -in Illud: Secundum Imaginem and similitudinem, inc. “Proen ho logos hèpsato” (Paris, Greek AF 758, f. 45r-52v).
    -in Illud: Christus is oriens, inc. “Chthès Hemin, O philochristoi” the only complete witness known is the Georgian version (Shanidze 1984, p 61-62, with a few passages trad Engl…) in Greek it remains only a short quotation in Photius (Bibliotheca, cod 277… Ed Henry 1977, 133-34).


    (48 full homilies homilies 3 fragmentary excerpts).

    -De Fide and lege naturae (CPG 4185), PG 48, 1081-1088: Lehmann (. 1975b, p 273-86) analyzes the Armenian version, which shows that the final published the Greek (PG 48, from 1086.46 to 1088 ) belongs to CPG 4210.
    -De Paenitentia and compunctione (CPG 4186), PG 49, 323 to 36: a quote in Armenian
    see Renoux (1985, p. 54).
    -in Ascensionem DNIC (CPG 4187), PG 52, 773-92: Boismard and Lamouille (… 1984 t 1, p 33-34 and No. 16) seem to be misinterpreted as authentically chrysostomienne.
    -De Sancto Spiritu (CPG 4188), PG 52, 813-26: the Vat. gr. 2401, p. 390, kept the attribution to Severian; cited by Photius (Bibliotheca, cod 277, Ed Henry 1977, p 131-33, which did not recognize the source…) as quoted by John Cantacuzino (see Voordeckers and Tinnefeld 1987, p. 133-34).
    Pastore and Christo -De fuzzy (CPG 4189) PG 52, 827-36: Shanidze (. 1984, p 56) found a Georgian version; cited by Jean Cantacuzino (Voordeckers and Tinnefeld 1987, p. 228).
    -in Psalmum 96 (CPG 4190), PG 55.603-12: commentary by Lienhard (1983, p 352.).
    -in Psalmum 95 (CPG 4191), PG 55, 619-30.
    -Homilia Of legislatore (CPG 4192), PG 56, 397-410: Wallach (. 1977, p 116-18) is the history of Latin quotations.
    -in Illud: In qua potestate (CPG 4193), PG 56, 411-28: Georgian version discovered by Shanidze (1984, p 57.).
    – De mundi Creatione Homiliae 1-6 (CPG 4194), PG 56, 429-500; excerpts were published by Little (1986); for the 7th homily, see CPG 4232; cosmology of these homilies is discussed by Ricciotti (1932, p 43-49.) they were used in Slavic milieu by John Exarch (Lägreid 1965, p. 29-45).
    -Quomodo Animam acceperit Adamus (CPG 4195): some passages were reviewed by Visonà (1985a, p 368-69, 1985b, p 464..).
    -De Winds Homily (CPG 4196), PG 56, 499-516: Severian also attributed to the Armenian anthology Galata (Lehmann 1982, p 118-19.).
    -in Genesim sermo 2 (4197 GC), PG 56, 522-26: authenticity confirmed by Voicu (1983-1984, p 12-14.) a fragment of this rare text slipped into the homily chrysostomienne From resurrectione DNIC (PG 50, PG 56 = 437.17-46, 523-24).
    -in Illud: Pone manum tuam (CPG 4198), PG 56, 553 to 64, three Armenian citations were discovered by Lehmann (1986, p 482.).
    – In filium prodigum (4200 GC), PG 59, 627-36 award conjectural (reject) for resale in John the Faster in Vat. Ottob. gr. 422, f. 315V Shanidze (. 1984, p 59) found a Georgian version; short quotation in Photius (Bibliotheca, cod 277. Henry ed 1977, p 155-56..).
    -in Illud: Quomodo scit in subparagraphs (CPG 4201), PG 59, 643-52: Severian assigned by the Armenian anthology Galata (Lehmann 1982, p 118-19.).
    -in Chananaeam and Pharaonem (CPG 4202), PG 59, 653-64: Lehmann (. 1975b, p 319-27) analyzes the Armenian versions.
    -in Illud: Non quod uolo Facio (CPG 4203), PG 59 663-74: its relationship with CPG 4230, see Aubineau (1983, p. 46-49).
    -in Incarnationem Domini (CPG 4204), PG 59, 687-700: Photius draws a very long free quote (Bibliotheca, cod 277. Henry 1977, 134-43.).
    -in Proditionem seruatoris (CPG 4205) PG 59.713-20: Beatrice (. 1983, p 75-76 and 193) comments on some passages.
    -De Fide (CPG 4206), PG 60, 767-72; ed. critical of the Ethiopian by Weischer (1980, p 19-67.) Georgian version discovered by Shanidze (1984, p. 57).
    – Contra Iudaeos, in serpentem aeneum (CPG 4207), PG 61, 793-802: pronounced the day after GC 4217.
    -De Sacrificiis Caini (CPG 4208), PG 62, 719-22: the only complete Greek ms is Vindob. Theol. gr. 64, f. 98-113 (see GCC IV, p 28.) Zanetti (1983 Synopsis, n. 15) identified an Arabic version.
    -De Sigillis sermo (CPG 4209), PG 63, 531-44: Wallach (. 1977, p 88-94) is the history of Latin quotations.
    – In illud: In principio erat uerbum (CPG 4210), PG 63, 543-50: Lehmann (. 1975b, p 273-86) analyzes the Armenian version, which kept up the final transmitted in Greek with CPG 4185; it also analyzes the text of John 1,3-4 used (1975a, p. 142).
    -in Sanctam Pentecostem (CPG 4211), PG 63, 933-38: Voicu (.. 1982, p 1203, No. 8) mentions a Greek citation as the Severian; cited by Boismard and Lamouille (1984, vol 2, p 339..), which seem to ignore the allocation Severian; van Esbroeck (1978, p. 75-80) published the Georgian version (CPG 4286).
    -in Theophaniam (CPG 4212), PG 65, 15-26: The Escorial ms Φ.III.20 f. 152V-160r adds a page supplement published by Wenger; fragmentary Latin version under the name of Augustine (Voicu 1979, p. 517-18).
    -in Pretiosam and uiuificam crucem (CPG 4213).
    -De Pace (CPG 4214), ed. A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Analecta yesterday. Stachuol., T. 1, St Petersburg, 1891, p. 15-26: Georgian version discovered by Shanidze (1984, p 58.).
    -in Illud: Pater, transeat (CPG 4215): six Armenian citations discovered by Lehmann (1986: 482-83.).
    -in Lotionem pedum (CPG 4216), ed. A. Wenger, Journal fl. Byz., t. 25, 1967, p. 219-34: the long version presupposed by van Esbroeck (. 1975, p 82 and 270) does not exist; Greek it is a centon, Georgian interpolation; Wallach (. 1977, p 94-102) is the history of Latin quotations; Beatrice (1980: 45-49;.. 1983, p 192-94) says in some passages.
    Sine nomine -Homilia (CPG 4217): fragment published by Dyobouniotès (., 1914, p 148-49), with the title of CPG 4232, the homily on the eve of CPG 4207.
    4218 -CPG: fragments from GC 4947.
    -De Centurione and contra Manichaeos and Apollinaristas (CPG 4230): edited, translated and commented by Aubineau (1983) also found that CPG 4295 (9) belongs to him; conjectures Nautin (1984) and Goulet (1985); despite the title of the edition, it is not a treaty but a homily.
    -in Noe and Filios eius (4232 GC): CPG refers to this room as in CPG 4217 and 4194; Greek, published in part by Dyobouniotès (.! 1914, p 144.20 to 148.4, where the text before the title), available in full in the Vatican ms; a trad. Germ. Part of the Arabic version was published by Zellinger (1916, p. 17).

    Homilies preserved in Armenian:
    -De Incarnatione (CPG 4240): four Armenian citations discovered by Lehmann (1986, p 481.).
    -De Dogmate baptismoque (CPG 4241): Lehmann (1986, pp. 481) was found in an Armenian citation; Georgia used to write CPG 4285 (see van Esbroeck 1979).
    -De Apostolis (CPG 4242): Two Armenian citations discovered by Lehmann (1986, p 482.) Georgia used to write CPG 4285 (see van Esbroeck 1979).
    -De Pascha, deque catharis (CPG 4243): Lehmann (1986, pp. 482) was found in an Armenian quote.
    -in Illud: Libri aperti sunt (CPG 4244): quote Armenian discovered by Lehmann (1986, p 482.).
    -in Sanctum martyrem Acacium (4245 GC).
    -De Aduentu super pullum Domini (CPG 4246): Lehmann (. L975b, p 335-67) analyzes the long Armenian version and demonstrates its authenticity; partial Georgian version (CPG 4287) was translated by van Esbroeck (1978, p. 80-90).
    -in Uenerabilem trinitatem consubstantialem (CPG 4248) discussed, along with a summary of the content, by Lehmann (1975b, p 287-317.), Which demonstrates its authenticity.
    -in Matrem filiorum Zebedaei (CPG 4249) citing the Armenian anthology Galata transmits the opening words of this homily (Lehmann 1982, p 117 and 119.).

    -De Natiuitate (CPG 4260): quoted by the Syriac anthology of John Maron (Nau, 1899, p 197.) according Breydy (1987, p. 6) is the source of the quote Leonce Jerusalem (CPG 4295/7).
    -De And arca Noe (CPG 4271, unpublished): despite my denial denoted GC, it is true because it refers to GC 4203.
    -Homilia In apostolos (CPG 4285, Georgian) made from CPG 4241-4242; resulted van Esbroeck (1979).
    -CPG 4286: together under GC 4211.
    -4287: Group in 4246.
    Various -Fragments (CPG 4295): (1), republished in part by Small (1977, p 98 and 143.) (5), see Renoux (1985, especially p 54, 60, 130-31.) (7): According Breydy (. 1987, p 6) originates, though distorted, GPC 4260; (9): Aubineau (. 1983, p 34-35 and 101-06) found that it comes from CPG 4230; (17a): In illud: Confiteor tibi, Pater: both Armenian citations discovered by Lehmann (. 1982, p 118-20) includes the passage quoted by Severus of Antioch.

    3 TWELVE homilies AUTHENTIC recorded by GC among the pseudo-chrysostomiennes.

    -in Genesim sermo 1 (CPG 4561), PG 56, 519-22: Authentic according Voicu (. 1983-84, p 12-14), against Altendorf (1957, p 90-91.).
    -in Iob sermons 2-4 (CPG 4564), PG 56, 567-82: returned to Severian by Voicu (1983-1984, p 14-16.) on Arab and Old Russian versions, see Samir (1977), and Samir Scharpé (1978).
    -De Tribes pueris sermo (CPG 4568), PG 56, 593-600: authenticity demonstrated by Voicu (1983-1984, p. 16-17).
    -De Caeco nato (CPG 4582), PG 59, 542-54: authenticity confirmed by Voicu (1983-1984, p 17-19.) Georgian version discovered by Shanidze (1984, p. 56).
    -De Caeco and Zacchaeo (CPG 4592), PG 59, 599-610: authenticity confirmed by Voicu (1983-84, p. 19-22).
    -in Illud: Quando ipsi subiciet omnia (CPG 4761): authenticity demonstrated by Voicu (1980-1982).
    -in Illud: Genimina uiperarum (CPG 4947, unpublished): Kecskeméti (1978) unpublished thesis devoted to this homily, which is the source of the fragments ranged under GC 4218; Shanidze (1984, p. 57-58) has discovered a Georgian version.
    -in Martyrs (CPG 4950, unpublished): surely true; Georgian version discovered by Shanidze (l984, p. 58).
    -in Postremum iudicium (CPG 4968, unpublished), surely genuine.
    -in Ascensionem Domini (CPG 5028, unpublished): surely genuine.


    -De Cruce and Latrone (CPG 4728): rejected by Altendorf (. 1957, p 78-85), the question deserves further consideration, or because parts CPG 4582 and 4592, used by Wenger as terms of comparison, are authentic (Voicu 1983-1984, p 17-22;.. against Altendorf 1957, p 52-72) or because Wenger reported a very different review, next to the form he published (see also Aubineau 1983, p. 30). Aldama (1965, p. 10, n. 34) is mistaken when he says that this homily was attributed to Proclus of Constantinople by Altendorf, because it explicitly rejects this possibility (1957, p. 84).
    -De Exaltatione Crucis (ed Pseutogas 1979 GC 4872.): Authenticity defended by the first editor and myself (Voicu 1983 to 1984, pp 22-23.) However, the published review and found arguments are problematic.
    -in Temptationem DNIC (CPG 4906, unpublished): his style would require an ex professo review.

    5 ° PARTS inauthentic.

    ‘We distinguish false attributions found in the manuscript tradition of those proposed by modern authors, but later dismissed, usually for stylistic reasons (leaving aside the unfortunate test Dupin, who “settled” thirty homilies in half a page).

    1) False attributions to Severian in the manuscript tradition.

    -De Incarnatione and contra Arianos (CPG 2806, 4295, No. 6.): Ethiopia’s anthology was republished by Weischer (1980b); Simonetti (1973, p. 322-29) demonstrates that the piece is not to Marcellus of Ancyra, but could come from eustathiens environments.
    -De Caeco nato (unpublished; CPG 4231): Despite the attachment of the unique ms, certainly inauthentic.
    -in Illud: Vir quidam descendebat (CPG 4246): inauthentic.
    -in Dedicationem pretiosae and uiuificae Crucis (CPG 4270): plagiarism authentic pieces.
    -in Natalem Domini (ed Lucchesi 1979, CPG 4282.): Despite the opinion of the editor and that of Aubineau (. 1983, p 21), it does not seem more authentic than other responsibilities to Severian in Coptic (cf. GC 4278-81).
    -in Parabolam of ficu (CPG 4588): Cappadocian author belongs to a (cf. Voicu 1986b, p 88-89, 1986a, p 287, n 10…).
    Domini nostri Iesu -in native Christi (CPG 4657): the quote in Theodoret was republished by Ettlinger (1975, p 117.) Lehmann (., 1982, pp 114-15, 117, 119) found a centon and a quote in Armenian as the Severian, but the play belongs to a Cappadocian author (Voicu 1986b, p 99-101;. 1988); on the so-called Coptic Version, see Voicu 1983, p. 666-67.
    -in Illud: Mari similis haec uita (CPG 4699): Despite the Armenian discovery citation
    by Lehmann (1982, p. 117-19), it belongs to a Pseudo-Chrysostome Cappadocian (Voicu 1986b, p. 106-07).
    -in Illud: Ignem ueni mittere (CPG 4669): about the Armenian manuscripts as the Severian, see Lehmann (1982, p. 115-16), but according Voicu (1971, p. 91-96) she belongs to a Pseudo-Chrysostom early 6th century.
    -De Remissione peccatorum (CPG 4629) on an Armenian centon as the Severian, see Lehmann (1982, p. 116), but it belongs to a Pseudo-Chrysostome Cappadocian (Voicu 1986b, p. 92-93).
    -in Natiuitatem Christi (unpublished; CPG 5008): rejected by Zellinger (1926, p 5, No. 2..) And
    Altendorf (9-10 1957, p.; Against Jugie 1926, p 134.).
    -De Proditione Iudae (CPG 5523): belongs to Pseudo-Eusebius of Alexandria.

    2) False Attributions due to modern authors.

    -Homilia Virginis Mariae 2 in annuntiationem (CPG 1776): Severian assigned by Wenger (1957, p 185.) Released by Altendorf (1957, p 79-80.).
    -in Meretricem and pharisaeum (CPG 4199); despite Aldama (1965, p. 144, n. 396), which probably confused this piece with CPG 4186 whose incipit is very similar, Altendorf did not attribute Severian, see his list of works (published by Lehmann 1975b p 18-19;.. Aubineau see also 1983: 20, note 83).
    -CPG 4272; Aubineau (1987) demonstrated that it is catechesis XV of Cyril of Jerusalem.
    -Homilia In sanctum pascha (CPG 4408); Baur (1955, p. 404) reluctant to grant.
    -in Illud: Exiit Edictum. (CPG 4520); Caro (1971-1972, p. 450-51) hesitates on the award.
    -in Ascensionem Christi Homily 2 (CPG 4532); Aldama (.. 1965, p 54, n 145) erred in affirming the award to Severian by Baur; his mistake may stem from confusion with CPG 4408 whose opening words are identical.
    -in Samaritanam (CPG 4581) apparently Aldama (.. 1965, p 171, No 457) is mistaken in asserting that it was attributed to Severian; at least the first few paragraphs of his guide refers CPG 4588 (see Lehmann 1982, p. 122, n. 6).
    -De Paenitentia and in Herodem and in Ioannem Baptistam (CPG 4614) and In Iordanem fluuium (CPG 4648) attributed by Marx (1939, p 332-37,344-46.) But rejected by Altendorf (1957, p 72-77. ).
    -in Baptismum and in tentationem (CPG 4735); assigned to Severian by Wenger (. 1956, p 46) and Chrysostom by Halton (1976), it belongs to a Pseudo-Chrysostom (cf. Voicu 1976, 1981, p 302, n 16..).
    -Oratio Of epiphania (ed Wenger 1977. CPG 4882); editor hesitates over the authorship of the piece; the atribution was rejected by Aubineau (1983, p. 20-21).
    -in Illlud Nemo bonus nisi solus Deus (CPG 4916); misallocation of which I am responsible (CPG, Ic).

    3 Doctrine.

    -L’oeuvre Literary Severian being dispersed and partly unpublished or contested, it is not surprising that his thinking has not been an overview. But even the work that address one or another aspect are few; in addition, the advances in our knowledge has expired in whole or in part, some items, like those of Jugie (1911) and Soares (1953), which are primarily based on texts which we now know they return to Eusebius of Emesa or other.

    Severian is primarily concerned with dogmatic and exegetical questions, but sometimes without a true perception of theological issues. He defends with verve Nicene orthodoxy, that is to say the consubstantiality and perfect equality of the Persons of the Trinity; but it is also among the supporters of a sort of biblical fundamentalism rather reserved towards strangers theological terms in Scripture (Zellinger 1926, p. 146-73).

    Christology, which is at its heart was barely studied (see Dürks 1917, p 76-79;. Aubineau 1983, p 86-89;. Totally ignored by Grillmeier 1979). Two files on its antimanichéenne and anti-Apollinarian controversy were formed by Aubineau (1983, p. 61-85), but he always takes the Arians to anoméens, Jews and smaller groups, such as Novatians or psathyriens. The passages which speaks of
    original sin were combined and briefly discussed, with other authors Antiochian, E. Testa, It peccato di Adamo nella Patristica (Gen III), Jerusalem, 1970, p. 76-106.

    In cosmology Severian ranks decidedly Antiochian side when, against the Cappadocian, he insists on a strictly literal reading of the creation story, which leads, for example, say that the earth is flat and was built waters, who, on the whole depends on Ephrem (Zellinger 1916, p 54-90;. cf. Wolska 1962 about its influence on Cosmas Indicopleustes).

    Despite their importance in the mind of Severian or assumptions or developments in his exegesis have been no detailed research.

    Simonetti (. 1985: 188-90) summarizes the salient features as they appear above in the cycle De mundi Creatione: like all Antiochian, Severian a preference principle of literal biblical text, but often it is involve symbolic interpretations. In his exegetical vocabulary it depends Diodorus of Tarsus which he had to borrow the distinction between theoria (“true meaning of the text (beyond the letter”) tropologia (“allegorical interpretation justified by the text”) and ALLEGORIA (“arbitrary interpretation “) (on Diodorus, see Simonetti 1985: 159-61;. Severian to see PG 61, 796, where he mentions the three terms and explains their meaning, see PG 59, 669). among the etymologies biblical names often recalled by Severian, there are some that are original and it derives from the Hebrew, but he does not reveal anywhere a real knowledge of the language, he also seems to increase the affinities with the Syriac (see eg PG 56, 473).

    Perhaps under the influence of Ephrem, his Mariology is much more important than Antiochian; it appears several times in the parallelism between Eve and Mary. It is also among the defenders of great holiness and intercessory role of Mary (Gila 1964, see also Soares 1953 Jugie, 1926, pp 131-34.). However, it is doubtful that he used the title Theotokos even if it occurs rarely in his homilies, where it is not simply interpolated, it probably derives from a correction kyriotokos, Severian term has certainly made his Ephesus and after we gauged less acceptable. For similar reasons we will avoid making a partisan of the perpetual virginity of Mary;il utilise couramment hagia parthenos, mais la seule attestation d’aeiparthenos dans ses homélies est suspecte (PG 56,403).

    La prédication morale de Sévérien est assez limitée; il donne souvent et explicitement la préférence aux questions théologiques, se contentant de temps à autre d’exhorter son public à pratiquer l’aumône (l’homélie De paenitentia, PG 49, 323-36, qui lui est presque entièrement dédiée, demeure de ce point de vue un exemple isolé).

    Sévérien ne ménage ni ses invectives ni son ironie à l’adresse de la culture païenne, qu’il accuse d’être une source d’hérésies et égarements doctrinaux; pourtant Goulet (1985) a pu démontrer qu’il utilise une comparaison tirée du répertoire stoïcien, qui n’est certainement pas unique dans son oeuvre.

    Tributaire de Diodore et d’Éphrem, Sévérien paraît se placer, avec une sorte de synthèse personnelle qui n’a pas de parallèle exact à la fin du 4e siècle, au croisement entre la théologie grecque (sous sa forme antiochienne) et la théologie syriaque. Il n’est donc pas surprenant qu’il ait plusieurs points de contact avec un ouvrage où se fait jour le même jeu d’influences entre le monde grec et le monde syriaque, les Quaestiones ad orthodoxos du Pseudo-Justin / Pseudo-Théodoret (cf. Lehmann 1969, qui n’a fait qu’entamer une voie de recherche prometteuse).

    Pour faciliter la consultation des références données dans l’article, la bibliographie est établie selon l’ordre alphabétique des auteurs.

    -J. A. de Aldama, Repertorium Pseudochrysostomicum (Documents, Etudes et Répertoires publiés par l’Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes 10), Paris, 1965.
    -H.D. Altendorf, Untersuchungen zu Severian von Gabala, Tübingen, 1957 (thèse inédite);Zur Bischofsliste von Gabala, dans Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft. t.50, 1959, p.48-61.
    -M. Aubineau, Un traité inédit de christologie de Sévérien de Gabala «in Centurionem et contra Manichaeos et Apollinaristas» (Cahiers d’Orientalisme 5), Genève, 1983; Un «sermo acephalus ineditus» – CPG 4272: «Sévérien de Gabala?» -restitué à Cyrille de Jérusalem, dans Vigiliae Christianae = VC, t. 41, 1987, p. 285-89.
    -R. Basset, Le synaxaire arabe jacobite (rédaction copte). Texte arabe 1, PO 1/3, p. 215-379.
    -C. Baur, Der heilige Johannes Chrysostomus und seine Zeit. I: Antiochien, II : Konstantinopel, Munich, 1929-30; Initia Patrum Graecorum. 1-11 (Studi e testi 180-181), Vatican, 1955; John Chrysostom and his time. 1: Antioch; II: Constantinople, LondresGlasgow, 1959-60.
    -P. F. Beatrice, Due nuovi testimoni della lavanda dei piedi in età patristica: Cromazio di Aquileia e Severiano di Gabala, dans V. Saxer (éd.), Ecclesia orans. Mélanges… Adalbert G. Hamman… = Augustinianum, t. 20, Rome, 1980, p. 23-54; La lavanda dei piedi : contributo alla storia delle antiche liturgie cristiane, Rome, 1983.
    -M.-E. Boismard et A. Lamouille, Le texte occidental des Actes des apôtres: reconstitution et réhabilitation, 2 vol. (Synthèse 17), Paris, 1984.
    -M. Breydy, Les attestations patristiques parallèles et leurs nuances chez les Ps.-Léonce et Jean Maron. dans P.O. Scholz et R. Stempel, éd., Nubia et Oriens Christianus (Festschrift D.G. Müller), Cologne, 1987, p. 3-16.
    -E. A. W. Budge, The Book of the Saints of the Ethiopian Church, 4 vol., Cambridge, 1928 (réimpr. Hildesheim-New York, 1976).
    -R. Caro, La homilética mariana griega en el siglo V; 3 vol. (Marian Library Studies N.S. 3-5), Dayton, 1971-73.
    -CCG IV-V: Codices Chrysostomici Graeci: W. Lackner, IV: Codices Austriae, Paris, 1981; R. E. Carter, V: Codicum Italiae partem priorem, Paris, 1983.
    -G. Colin, Le synaxaire éthiopien. Mois de maskaram, PO 43/3, 1986, p. 323-512. CPG II-III: M. Geerard, Clauis Patrum Graecorum, t. 2-3, Turnhout, 1974-79.
    -G. Dürks, De Severiano Gabalitano. Dissertatio inauguralis. Kiel, 1917.
    -K.1. Dyobouniotès, Iôannou Damaskènou Logoi anekdotoi.dans Ekklèsiastikos Pharos. t.13, 1914, p.58-69,119-49.
    -G. H. Ettlinger, Theodoret of Cyrus. Eranistes. Oxford, 1975.
    -A. M. Gila, Esame dei principali testi mariani di Saveriano di Gabala. dans Marianum, t. 26, 1964, p. 113-72.
    -R. Goulet, Un nouveau fragment stoïcien chez Sévérien de Gabala. dans Études philosophiques. Paris, 1985, p. 251-55.
    -A. Grillmeier, Jesus der Christus im Glauben der Kirche. 1 : Von der Apostolischen Zeit bis zum Konzil von Chalcedon (451). Fribourg/Br., 1979.
    -F. Halkin, Douze récits byzantins sur saint Jean Chrysostome (Subsidia hagiographica 60), Bruxelles, 1977.
    -T. Halton, Two Newly Edited Homilies of John Chrysostom. dans Irish Theological Quarterly, t. 48, 1976, p. 133-38. -Ch.
    -J.Hefele et H. Lec1ercq, Histoire des conciles. t.2/1, Paris, 1908.
    -R.Henry, Photius.Bibliothèque, t.1 : Codices 1-83, Paris, 1959; t.8: Codices 257-80, Paris, 1977.
    -M.Jugie, Sévérien de Gabala et le Symbole athanasien, dans Échos d’Orient. t.14, 1911, p.193-204;La mort et l’Assomption de la sainte Vierge dans la tradition des cinq premiers
    siècles, ibid.. t. 25, 1926, p. 5-20, 129-43, 281-307.
    -J. Kecskeméti, Sévérien de Gabala. Homélie inédite sur le Saint-Esprit, Paris, 1978 (thèse inédite).
    -A. Lâgreid, Der rhetorische Stil im Sestodnev des Exarchen Johannes (Monumenta Linguae Siavicae Dialecti Veteris 4), Wiesbaden, 1965.
    -H. J. Lehmann, Hosanna. A Philological Discussion in the Old Church, dans Armeniaca. Mélanges d’études arméniennes. Venise, 1969, p. 165-74; Om interpunktionen i Joh. 1,3.4 i den aeldste kirke. dans N. Hyldahl et E. Nielsen (éd.), Hilsen til B. Noack …. Copenhague, 1975, p. 137-50; Per Piscatores-Orsordawkc: Studies in the Armenian Version of a Collection of Homilies by Eusebius of Emesa and Severian of Gabala, Àrhus 1975; Severian of Gabala: New Identifications of Texts in Armenian Translation. dans T. J. Samuelian (éd.), Classical Armenian Culture: Influences and creativity (Armenian Texts and Studies 4), University of Pennsylvania 1982, p. 113-24; Severian of Gabala: Fragments of the Aucher Collection in Galata Ms 54. dans D. Kouymjian (éd.), Armenian Studies. Études arméniennes in memoriam Haîg Berbérian. Lisbonne, 1986, p. 477-87.
    -J. T. Lienhard, The Exegesis of 1 Cor. 15.24-28 from Marcellus of Ancyra to Theodoret of Cyrus. VC, t. 37, 1983, p. 340-59.
    -E. Lucchesi, Un sermon copte de Sévérien de Gabala sur la Nativité du Christ (attribué aussi à Proclus de Constantinople). AB, t. 97, 1979, p. 111-27.
    -B. Marx, Severiana unter den spuria Chrysostomi bei Montfaucon-Migne. OCP, t. 5, 1939, p. 281-367.
    -F.Nau, Opuscules maronites.dans Revue de l’Orient chrétien. t.4, 1899, p.175-226.
    -P. Nautin, L’homélie de Sévérien de Gabala « Sur le Centurion contre les Manichéens et les Apollinaristes ». Remarques sur le texte et l’interprétation. VC, t. 38, 1984, p. 393-99.
    -F.Petit, Catenae Graecae in Genesim et in Exodum.I. Catena Sinaitica.CCG 2, Turnhout-Louvain, 1977; II.Collectio Coisliniana in Genesim.CCG 15, 1986.
    -B.S. Pseutogas «L’homélie pseudo-chrysostomienne sur la Croix sainte et vivifiante (BHG3, 415m et 415n) est-elle de Sévérien de Gabala» (en grec), dans Grègorios ho Palamas. t.62, 1979, p.299-318.
    -A. Renoux, La chaîne arménienne sur les Épîtres catholiques. 1. La chaîne sur l’Épître de Jacques, PO 43/1, n. 193, Turnhout, 1985.
    -G. Ricciotti, La cosmologia della Bibbia e la sua transmissione fino a Dante (L’Apocalisse di Paolo siriaca II), Brescia, 1932.
    -Kh.Samir, Les sermons sur Job du Pseudo-Chrysostome (CPG 4564=BHG 939d-g) retrouvés en arabe, dans Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica. t.8, 1977, p.205-16.
    -Kh. Samir et J. L. Scharpé, Les sermons sur Job du Pseudo-Chrysostome … dans la version paléo-russe, ibid., t. 9, 1978, p. 167-73.
    -M. Shanidzé, An Old Georgian Grammatical Treatise in a Collection of Homilies attributed to John Chrysostom, dans Bedi Kartlisa, t. 42, 1984, p. 53-68.
    -M. Simonetti, Su alcune opere attribuite di recente a Marcello d’Ancira, dans Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa = RSLR, t. 9, 1973, p. 313-29; Lettera e/o allegoria. Un contributo alla storia dell’esegesi patristica (Studia ephemeridis «Augustinianum» 23), Rome, 1985.
    -E. J. Soares, Severianus of Gabala and the Protoevangelium, dans Marianum, t. 15, 1953, p. 401-11.
    -K. Staab, Pauluskommentare am der griechischen Kirche aus Katenenhandschriften gesammelt und herausgegeben (Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen 15), Münster, 1933 (réimpr. 1983).
    -M.van Esbroeck, Les plus anciens homéliaires géorgiens.Étude descriptive et historique (Publications de l’Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 10), Louvain-la-Neuve, 1975;Deux homélies de Sévérien de Gabala (Ive-Ve siècle) conservées en géorgien, dans Bedi Kartlisa. t.36, 1978, p.71-91;L’homélie «sur les apôtres» de Sévérien de Gaballa en version géorgienne, ibid., t.37, 1979, p.86-101.
    -G. Visonà, L’interpretazione sacramentale di Io., XIX, 34 nello Ps. Ippolito «In S. Pascha » 53, RSLR, t. 21, 1985, 3, p. 357-82; Pseudo-Ippolito «In S. Pascha» 53 e la tradizione dell enkràteia, dans Cristianesimo nella storia, t. 6, 1985, p. 445-88.
    -S.J.Voicu, «Giovanni di Gerusalemme» e Pseudo-Crisostomo.dans Euntes Docete. t.24, 1971, p.66-111 ;Cinque omelie pseudocrisostomiche di un ignoto autore della fine del quarto secolo.Rome, 1976 (thèse inédite);Due sermoni pseudo-agostiniani tradotti dal greco.dans Augustinianum. t.19, 1979, p.517-19;In illud: Quando ipsi subiciet omnia (CPG 4761), una omelia di Severiano di Gabala?dans Rivista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. t.27-29, n. s.17-19, 1980-82, p.5-11;Une nomenclature pour les anonymes du corpus pseudo-chlysostomien.dans Byzantion. t.51, 1981, p.297-305;Le corpus pseudo-chrysostomien.Questions préliminaires et état des recherches.dans E. A. Livingstone (éd.), Studia Patristica XVIII, Oxford-New York, 1982, p.1198-1205;Basilio e pseudocrisostomo: nuovi accostamenti, dans Basilio di Cesarea, la sua età, la sua opera e il basilianesimo in Sicilia.Atti dei Congresso internazionale (Messina 3-6 XII 1979), t.1, Messine, 1983, p.659-67;Nuove restituzioni a Severiano di Gabala, dans Riv.di Studi Biz.e Neoell., t.30-31, n. s.20-21, 1983-84, p.3-24;Uno Pseudocrisostomo (cappadoce?), lettore di Origene alla fine del sec.IV, dans L’origenismo: apologie e polemiche intorno ad Origene = Augustinianum, t.26, Rome, 1986, p.281-93;Trentatre omelie pseudocrisostomiche e il loro autore, dans Lexicum philosophicum, t.2, 1986, p.73-141;Note sull’omelia pseudocrisostomica In natale Domini nostri Iesu Christi (CPG 4567), dans Mémorial… J. Gribomont…, Rome, 1988, p.621-26.
    -E. Voordeckers et F. Tinnefeld, Iohannis Cantacuzeni Refutationes duae Prochori Cydonii …, CCG 16, Turnhout-Louvain, 1987.
    -L. Wallach, Diplomatic studies in Latin and Greek documents from the Carolingian age, Ithaca-Londres, 1977.
    -B. M. Weischer, Das christologische Florilegium in Qērellos II. dans Oriens Christianus, t. 64, 1980, p. 109-35; Qērellos IV 3: Traktate des Severianos von Gabala, Gregorios Thaumaturgos und Kyrillos von Alexandrien (Äthiopistische Forschungen 7), Wiesbaden, 1980.
    -A. Wenger, La tradition des oeuvres de S. Jean Chrysostome, dans Revue des études byzantines, t. 14, 1956, p. 5-47; Le sermon LXXX de la collection de Mai restitué à Sévérien de Gabala, dans Augustinus magister: Congrès international augustinien, t. l, Paris, 1954, p. 175-85; Une homélie inédite (de Sévérien de Gabala?) sur l’Épiphanie, AB, t. 95, 1977, p. 73-90.
    -W. Wolska, La Topographie chrétienne de Cosmas Indicopleustès. Théologie et science au VIe siècle (Bibliothèque Byzantine 3), Paris, 1962.
    -U. Zanetti, Homélies copto-arabes pour la Semaine Sainte, dans Augustinianum, t. 23, 1983, p. 517-22.
    -J.Zellinger, Die Genesishomilien des Bischofs Severian von Gabala (Alttestamentliche
    Abhandlungen 7, 1), Münster, 1916; Studien zu Severian von Gabala (Münsterische Beiträge zur Theologie 8), Münster, 1926).

    La rédaction de cette notice a bénéficié des transcriptions inédites et des conseils de Gilberte Astruc-Morize, Judit Kecskeméti, Cornelis Datema, Henning J. Lehmann et Holger Villadsen.

    DS, t.l, col.865; t.3, col.811; t.4, col.891,1467-1785, 1981; t.5, col.485; t.6, col.205, 818, 836; t.7, col.607, 612, 615; t.8, col.356-61 passim; t.9, col.335, 1194; t.10, col.1466.

    Sever J. VOICU.

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