Archive for the 'Announcements' Category
January 30th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
The memory of the Great Persecution, under Diocletian, persisted. Unfortunately the details seem to have been entirely forgotten by Eutychius’ time, and been replaced by fiction.
1. Diocletian began to reign in the eleventh year of the reign of Sabur, son of Hurmuz, king of the Persians. Together with Diocletian reigned Maximian called Ilkūriyūs (1). They reigned over the Romans for twenty years. They inflicted on the Christians great misfortunes and long affliction, painful suffering and great tribulations, too great, in truth, to be described. They caused the Christians all kinds of evil by killing them and confiscating their property. Only God knows how many Christians they put to death! In their days there were thousands and thousands of martyrs (2). They tortured St George in various ways and put him to death in Palestine. Saint George (3) was a native of Cappadocia. They also put to death St. Menna, Sts. Victor, Fikinitiyūs, Abimacus and Mercurius. In the tenth year of their reign Peter was made Patriarch of Alexandria. He held the office for ten years. In the twentieth year of their reign this Peter was beheaded in Alexandria. In the first year of their reign Eutychianus was made patriarch of Rome (4). He held the office for eight years and died. In the ninth year of their reign Gaius was made patriarch of Rome (5). He held the office for twelve years and died. In the tenth year of their reign Awriyus [=Tyrannus] was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for eleven years and died. In the fifth year of their reign Māmūnis was made bishop of Jerusalem (6). He held the office for thirteen years and died. In the eighteenth year of their reign Zabdas was made bishop of Jerusalem. He held the office for ten years and died.
2. Peter, patriarch of Alexandria, had two disciples: one was called Ashīllà (7) and the other Alexander. There also lived in Alexandria, a heretic named Arius who said: “Only the Father is God, and the Son is a created being and made. The Father has always been, but the Son was not”. Then the patriarch Peter said to his two disciples: “Christ, [our] the Lord has cursed this Arius. Beware, therefore, from accepting him or his doctrine. In truth I have seen in a dream, while I was sleeping, Christ with his clothes torn and asked him: “Who has torn your clothes, my Lord?” And he answered me: ‘Arius’. Beware then of bringing him into the church with you.” Five years after the murder of Peter, Patriarch of Alexandria, his disciple Asilla was made patriarch of Alexandria. He held the office for six years and died. Arius pleaded the cause of his friends before the patriarch Asilla, giving proof that he had repented of his perverse doctrine and his wickedness. Asilla had then welcomed him and admitted in his church as a consecrating priest. Diocletian, meanwhile, was trying the Christians and putting them to death.
He was busy hunting them down when he came to a place called Dalmatia (8). Here the vengeance of God fell upon him, and his body began to decompose and he was suffering from a horrible disease and such great wounds that of his flesh was filled with worms which fell to the ground. Finally even his tongue and palate broke away and he died. As for Maximian, called Herculeus, he also contracted a disease that burned his body to a crisp, and he died in Tarsus (9). After them reigned Maxentius (10), son of Maximian. Joining with him another Maximian called Galerius (11) reigned, for nine years. This happened in the thirty-second year of the reign of Sabur, son of Hurmuz, Persian. The two divided the kingdom between them: Maximian, called Galerius, reigned over the east, over Syria and the territory of Rum, while Maxentius ruled over the city of Rome and its territories. Both acted towards the Christians like beasts and inflicted on them indescribable misfortunes and extermination like no other king before them had ever done. Reigning with them over Byzantium and its territories was Constantius (12), father of Constantine. He was a peaceful man, pious, a hater of idols and a lover of the Christians. Constantius went into Mesopotamia and ar-Ruha (13). Stopping in a village of the district of ar-Ruha, named Kafr-Fakhkhār, he happened to come across a handsome woman named Helena, who had received baptism at the hands of Barsiqā, bishop of ar-Ruha, and had learned to read the sacred books. Constantius asked her father for her hand, and he gave her to him as his wife. The woman became pregnant by him, and Constantius returned to Byzantium. Helena gave birth to a son, fine-featured, gentle, intelligent, reluctant to do evil, and a lover of wisdom, named Constantine, who was educated in ar-Ruha and learned the wisdom of the Greeks (14).
3. Maximian, called Galerius, was a coarse, violent man, full of hatred against the Christians and their implacable enemy; a womanizer to the point that he wouldn’t allow any Christian girl to flee without arresting, raping and killing her. And even as he and his men deflowered the Christian virgins, they took possession of the their property and killed them. The Christians suffered at their hands enormous tribulations. It happened that one day someone spoke to Maximian of Constantine and described him as a quiet young man, who kept away from evil and was well educated. His astrologers even told him that he would become king of a great kingdom. He therefore thought to kill him, but Constantine heard of it and fled from the city of ar-Ruha, taking refuge in Byzantium, where he came to his father, Constantius, who gave him the kingdom. A little later Constantius, Constantine’s father, died and God caused the king Maximian serious disease to the point that his decomposing flesh fell into pieces and rolled on the ground so that no-one could stand to be nearby: even his enemies had compassion on him because of the misfortune that had struck him. He came to himself and said: “Maybe this is my punishment because I killed the Christians.” Letters were sent to all his provinces, ordering the release of the Christians, to honour them, not hurt them, and asked them to raise prayers of intercession for the king. The Christians prayed for the king and interceded for him. God gave him healing and then he became more vigorous and healthier than he had been at first. But being healed and recovered, he resolved to be more evil than usual and sent letters in all his provinces giving the order to put to death the Christians, to exterminate them to the last in his kingdom, not to allow them to live in any city and in any village and annihilate them wherever they were. Countless Christians, men women and children, were killed. And many were the dead that were loaded onto wagons and thrown in the sea or in the desert.
4. In the city of Cappadocia there were killed Sergius and Bacchus (15), both citizens of that city, and Saint Barbara. In the second year of the reign of Maximian Brtāliyūs was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for six years and died. In the third year of his reign Marcellus was made patriarch of Rome (16). He held the seat for two years and died.
January 30th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
Another batch of Greek manuscripts has gone online at the British Library, which is excellent news. It’s a fairly miscellaneous batch, but that’s all to the good. New discoveries are not likely to be made in the “mainstream” manuscripts that are turned over constantly; but rather in those which are never handled or examined.
Here are some of the highlights (and, drat them, I see that they’ve busted the copy-and-paste again):
- Add MS 36589, Sermons by Chrysostom, Amphilochius. Eusebius of Caesarea, Martyrs of Palestine (long recension), plus saint’s lives 12th century.
- Add MS 39606, Gregory of Nazianzus, Orationes, followed by extracts from Pseudo-Nonnus, Scholia mythologica.
- Add MS 39618, Athanasius, Quaestiones ad Antiochum ducem [Sp.]. (TLG 2035.077). A longer version of Quaestio 1 than is printed in the Patrologia Graeca. 16th c. Plus a couple of other items.
- Burney MS 60, “Apparatus Bellicis” (whatever that may be), 16th c. Includes extracts from Julius Africanus’ Kestoi, book 7. Might be mathematical. There’s a table of contents on fol. 2.
- Burney MS 75, Letters by or attributed to classical and Byzantine figures, including Libanius, Nicholas Cabasilas, Brutus, Demetrius Cydones, Gregory of Nazianzus, and others. Written in part by the scribe Δημήτριος Ραοὺλ Καβάκης (ff 138r-144v, 177r-178v); formerly erroneously ascribed to Ἰωάσαφ. Greece (Mistra) or Italy, Central (Rome), mid-15th century. Mostly letters of Gregory Nazianzen, but various interesting bits. Also a Life of Libanius from Eunapius.
- Burney MS 84, Proclus of Athens, In Platonis Alcibiadem I (TLG 4036.007), imperfect. Italy, N.? 4th quarter of the 16th century.
Also some biblical stuff, and various bits of Byzantine stuff that probably would repay opening and looking!
January 30th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
In the Patrologia Orientalis 13 and 19 is a collection of deeds and sayings attributed to Jesus in Muslim sources of the 10th-11th century. This was edited by Miguel Asin y Palacios in 1919 and 1924. Asin apparently took the curious view that these went back to the 1st century. (Anyone familiar at all with Arabic literature will be aware how much story-telling and elaboration features in it, so we need not take that opinion very seriously!) But it is good to have these things, since they will undoubtedly pop up in odd places.
Anthony Alcock has started to translate this edition into English, and he has kindly made it available online to us all, with an explanatory introduction. Here is the first part:
January 28th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
Let’s continue using Google translate on the Italian translation of the Annals, with some smoothing and correcting, and see what Eutychius has to say. This section again contains a chunk from the lost Sassanid Persian chronicle.
16. Ghallitīnūs Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him Claudius Caesar (61) reigned in Rome, for one year only. This happened in the third year of the reign of Hurmuz, king of the Persians. In the first year of the reign of Claudius Caesar, Paul was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for eight years and died. He was called Paul of Samosata because he was from the city of Samosata and it was he who gave rise to the sect of the Paulicians. The followers of his religion and the supporters of his doctrine were in fact called Paulicians from his name, i.e. Paul. Paul of Samosata maintained that Christ, our Lord, was a man and was created by the Deity, just as each of us is, as to the substance, which is the principle of the Son of Mary, and that he was to be chosen to become the saviour of the human substance, was visited by divine grace that entered him by means of Love and Will, and was therefore called the Son of God. He went further by saying that God is one substance and one person, and he did not believe in the Word or in the Holy Spirit. After his death thirteen bishops gathered in the city of Antioch, examined the case and the doctrine, and after excommunicating him and the advocates of the doctrine, they returned each to his own home.
17. Claudius Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him Aurelian Caesar (62) reigned over the Romans, in Rome, for five years. This happened in the fourth year of the reign of Hurmuz, son of Narsi, king of the Persians. In the first year of the reign of Aurelian Caesar Dionysius was made Patriarch of Rome (63). He held the office for eight years and died. In the fourth year of his reign Neron was made patriarch of Alexandria. He held the seat for nineteen years and died. The Christians of Alexandria had been accustomed to pray in quarries and houses, secretly, for fear that the Romans might kill them, and the patriarch of Alexandria until then never appeared in public. But as soon as Neron became patriarch, he began to be seen in public and always treated the Romans with so much grace that he obtained the right to construct a church in Alexandria in honor of the Lady Martmaryam. In the fifth year of his reign [i.e. Aurelian Caesar], Hurmuz, son of Narsi, king of the Persians, died, without leaving a son to take his place. But one of his wives was pregnant, and when the people asked: “Can you tell us if you bear a male or a female child?” “I feel,” she said, “that the baby moves to the right, even though it does not weigh much. So this is a sign that it will be a male child.” Great was their joy, and they put the crown on the lap of the woman. In fact, she gave birth to a male child, whose name was Sabur (64), and he is the one who was later nicknamed “Dhu’l-Aktāf” [i.e. “detaching from behind”] because every time he conquered a king, he dislocated his shoulder blades. So the joy of the Persians was great, because of her.
18. Aurelian Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him reigned Tacitus and Qūrinūs (65) for nine months and they were killed. After them Marūnus Caesar (66) reigned over the Romans for six years. This happened in the third year of the reign of Sabur, son of Hurmuz, king of the Persians. In the third year of the reign of Marūnus, Felix was made patriarch of Rome (67). He held the office for five years and died. In the second year of his reign, Cyrillus was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the seat for fifteen years and died.
19. Marūnus Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him Farus (68) Caesar reigned, along with his two sons Fan (69) and Nūmāziyānūs (70), for two years. This happened in the ninth year of the reign of Sabur, son of Hurmuz. He was cruel against the Christians, and it was he who put to death the two brother-martyrs Cosmas and Damian.
The king Farus died and his two sons were killed. After him Diocletian Caesar (71) reigned over the Romans, in Rome.
20. From the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in the reign of Diocletian had passed two hundred and six years; from the birth of Christ, our Lord, to the king Diocletian had passed two hundred seventy-six years; from the reign of Alexander to the reign of Diocletian there passed five hundred ninety-five years; from the captivity of Babylon to the reign of Diocletian had passed eight hundred fifty-eight years; from David to the reign of Diocletian had passed thirteen hundred thirty-five years; from the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt to the reign of Diocletian had passed nineteen hundred forty-one years; from Abraham to the reign of Diocletian had passed two thousand four hundred forty-eight years; from Faliq to Diocletian had passed two thousand nine hundred eighty-nine years; from the flood to Diocletian had passed three thousand five hundred twenty years; from Adam to Diocletian had passed five thousand seven hundred seventy-six years.
January 27th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
Sometime before 325 AD, Eusebius of Caesarea compiled his Chronicle, in two books. The second volume exploited the new, large-size, parchment codex, and consisted of page after page of tables of dates and events, synchronising events in different kingdoms, and laying the basis for all subsequent history. Around 380, Jerome came across a copy in Constantinople, and translated it into Latin. A copy of his translation dated to 450 AD is held in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, where I have seen it; and 10 copies exist dated before 1000 AD. Eusebius’ original Greek, unfortunately, did not survive.
The manuscripts split into two families, each based on a 5th century exemplar. These are the group of 4 mss, SANP; and the group of 2, OM. (A list, explaining each letter, can be found here).
In a fascinating paper which deserves to be better known, Alden Mosshammer noticed that OM preserve errors of translation, which were corrected in SANP. One of these requires access to the Greek.
Here’s the first example, (References are to Schoene’s 1956 edition, but you can find these in the online translation fairly easily).
P.217, line 24.
- [Original] ἆθλα μ’ … (nnn ran in the contest for the birthday of Rome …)
- OM = athalamos natali romanae urbis cucurrit (currit M) = “Athalamos ran in the contest…”
- A = XL missus natali romanae urbis cucurrerunt = “40 ran in the contest…”
- PN = quadraginta missus natali romanae urbis cucurrerunt = “40 ran in the contest…”
(I don’t know Greek numerals – what is the original number in Arabic numerals?)
It seems that Jerome dictated the numeral as a proper name, and the scribe wrote it down as one. Somebody corrected it later, but OM preserve the dictation error. Access to the Greek is required to spot this one.
The following example does not require consulting the Greek, and is in fact just a scribal correction:
P.83b, lines 21-23, is a heading. It gives the name of Alcamenes, who was the 9th king of Sparta, and then the years of his reign follow below the heading.
- [Original] = θ‘ Ἀλκαμένης (i.e. “9. Alcamenes”).
- O = thalcamenes
- M = thalcamenis
- A = VIIII menes
- P = VIIII tarcamenes
- N = VIIII tharcamenes
OM think the text reads “Thalcamenes”. But the copyist SANP realised that the first letter was actually the number 9, although they still didn’t get the name right. Possibly they realised this, because all the kings have numbers, so they inserted “VIIII” (i.e. “IX”) in front.
Here I have a little personal experience to contribute.
Scribes copied the names the first, and worked down the columns, rather than across. When I transcribed the chronicle, I found that this was much the quickest and safest way. The only problem was that you might write too many numerals, and suddenly realise that after year 9 there is a new king! In the Bodleian ms (O), indeed, you see erasures of just this kind. In HTML, luckily, I could just go back.
So the scribe will have quickly realised that a numeral was missing, and added it; although he could not determine the correct spelling of the name. This correction could have occurred at any time, tho.
Mosshammer gives only these examples, and a couple of others which do not bear on this question.
Numerals in Greek are vulnerable things. The first example proves that even St. Jerome could be foxed. In this case, the lists of unfamiliar names, preceded by numerals, were a perfect occasion for error.
January 27th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
You do it. I do it. We all do it. Yes, I’m talking about photocopies! All those journal articles… all those books that we couldn’t get hold of in any other way.
At least, that’s what we used to do. I suspect that university libraries are allowing copying direct to PDF these days. But certainly fifteen years ago, if I wanted a copy of a book, or an article, it was photocopying or nothing.
In consequence, over time, I amassed a great quantity of the things. The first ones I neatly filed in hanging folders in a filing cabinet. But this quickly became impossible. I noted that the paper used in photocopiers came in nice-sized boxes, and appropriated these. Inside them, I stored my articles, separated by wrapping a piece of paper around them.
Over time I ended up with nine of these boxes. Big, heavy, and so solid that, as I had 6 of them piled next to my desk, I tended to use them as furniture and rest coffee cups, notes, pens, etc on top of them.
Only one is left now. This evening I finished the last-but-one. Its contents are now PDFs on my hard disk.
I imagine that I stopped keeping photocopies around 3-4 years ago, and just automatically scanned them to PDF. But looking in the boxes is like looking into my own past. Today, for instance, I have found a load of books and articles relating to the Chronicle of St. Jerome, which I (and a gang of volunteers) translated into English. I’m told that was 10 years ago. My, how the time has flown.
In those days I uploaded the result to HTML. Should I have produced a PDF version? It seems more clear each day that I should have done so. But I doubt that I have the energy any more. Let others do it, if they will: I have given them the materials.
At least I can now see the carpet next to my desk. For the first time in over a decade!
January 27th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
We continue reading the Arabic Christian Annals by Eutychius, Melkite patriarch of Alexandria. The Sassanid kings, whose lost chronicle is used here, seem to have had a direct way with the Manichaeans.
9. Alexander Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him Maximinus Caesar (31) reigned over the Romans, in Rome, for three years. This happened in the thirtieth year of the reign of Sahur, son of Azdashīr, king of the Persians. This king Maximinus procured serious misfortunes and long affliction for the Christians. Many Christians were killed and people began to worship idols that they thought were gods. Many bishops were killed, and Babila, Patriarch of Antioch, was killed as well. When Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem, heard that Babila, Patriarch of Antioch, had been killed, he fled and abandoned the see. In the second year of his reign Diyūs was made bishop of Jerusalem (32), instead of Narcissus. He held the office for three years and died. In the third year of his reign Fabianus was made patriarch of Rome (33). He held the office for thirteen years and was killed. In the second year of his reign Dionysius was made patriarch of Alexandria. He was a Katib. He held the office for seventeen years and died. In the second year of his reign Sabur, son of Azdashīr, king of the Persians, died. After him reigned Hurmuz, son of Sabur (34), i.e. Hurmuz al-Hurri, for one year and ten months and died.
10. In the third year of the reign of Maximinus Caesar Bahram, son of Hurmuz (35), reigned over the Persians. He reigned for three years and three months. In the third year of the reign of Bahram, king of the Persians, Maximinus Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him reigned Pupienus Caesar (36), called Julianus Caesar, for three months and was killed. After him Gordian Caesar (37) reigned over the Romans, in Rome, for four years. In the first year of his reign Flavian was made patriarch of Antioch (38). He held the office for eleven years and died. In the second year of his reign Germanus was made bishop of Jerusalem. He held the office for four years and died. In the third year of his reign Bahram, son of Hurmuz, king of the Persians, died.
11. After him Bahram, son of Bahram (39), reigned over the Persians for seventeen years. In his day appeared a Persian named Mani (40), who spread the Manichaean religion by going around claiming to be a prophet. Bahram, son of Bahram, arrested him and cut him in two. He then captured two hundred of his disciples and followers, and he put them in the ground up to neck until they died, saying: “I set up a vegetable garden, and instead of planting trees I planted men” (41). His followers and supporters of his doctrine were called Manichaeans, after Mani’s name.
12. In the third year of the reign of Bahram, son of Bahram, Gordian Caesar, King of the Romans, died. After him Philip Caesar (42) reigned over the Romans, in Rome, for seven years. He embraced the faith in Christ, our Lord. In the first year of his reign Gordian was made bishop of Jerusalem. He held the office for five years and died. In the fourth year of his reign Narcissus (43), the Bishop of Jerusalem that had escaped, came back, and together with Gordian administered the bishopric for a year. Then Gordian, Bishop of Jerusalem, died and Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem, held the seat for [another] ten years until he died, at the age of one hundred and sixteen years. As for the King Philip Caesar, his general named Decius revolted and killed him and took possession of the kingdom.
13. Decius Caesar (44) reigned over the Romans in Rome for two years. This was in the tenth year of the reign of Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians. The Christians suffered many hardships and grave evils at the hands of Decius who killed an incalculable number. Many people were martyred in his day, including Fabianus (45), patriarch of Rome. Then Decius left the city of Carthage (46) and traveled to Ephesus where he built, at the center of the city, a large temple in which he placed the idols, ordering the population to worship them and offer sacrifices. Those who refused would be killed. For this reason he put to death many Christians, crucifying them on the walls of Ephesus. Decius then took seven young men from among the families of some magnates of Ephesus and entrusted to them the care of his clothing. The names of these young men were: Maximian, Amlicus, Dianus, Martinus, Dionysius, Antoninus and John. And since these seven young men were not accustomed to bow down before idols, the spies of the king made him aware of this. The king went into a rage and ordered them thrown into jail. Then having to go away for an expedition, he set them free with the intention to defer to his return the decision on their fate. When the king left the city, the young men took all they had and gave it away for charity. Then they went up onto a high mountain, called Khāws (47), to the east of Ephesus. There was on that mountain a large cave, and they hid themselves. Each day, one of them in turn left that place and went into town to hear what people said of them, to buy food and to inform the others when he returned. The king Decius returned and asked for news of the young men. They told him that they were on the mountain, in the cave. He ordered that the entry should be blocked so that they should die. But God caused a deep sleep to descend on the seven youths and they fell asleep so that they almost seemed dead. A general of the King picked up a sheet of lead and wrote on it their history and what there was between them and the king Decius. Then he put the plate of lead in a copper box, and he left it inside the cave when the entry was blocked.
14. The king Decius died. After him two kings reigned in Rome, over the Romans: Ghalliyūs Caesar and Yūliyānūs Caesar (48) for two years. This was in the twelfth year of the reign of Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians. In the first year of their reign Cornelius was made patriarch of Rome (49). He held the see for two years and died. In that same year Demetrianus was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for eight years and died.
15. The king Yūliyānūs died and eighteen days afterwards the king Ghalliyūs, his partner, was killed. After them reigned over the Romans Ghalititūs Caesar, called Alāriyānūs Caesar (50), for fifteen years. This happened in the fourteenth year of the reign of Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians. In the first year of his reign Maximus was made patriarch of Alexandria. He held the office for eighteen years and died. In the same year Lucius was made patriarch of Rome (51). He held the office for eight months and died. After him Ustātiyūs was made patriarch of Rome (52). He held the office for six years and died. In the eighth year of his reign Sixtus was made patriarch of Rome (53). He held the seat for nine years and died. In that same year Domnus was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for three years and died. In the twelfth year of his reign Timothy was made patriarch of Antioch. He held the office for three years and died. In the fifth year of his reign Alexander was made bishop of Jerusalem (54). He had held the seat for seven years when this king had him killed in the city of Caesarea in the eleventh year of his reign. In the fourteenth year of his reign Marzābān was made bishop of Jerusalem. He held the seat for twenty-one years and died. In the seventh year of the reign of Ghalinītūs Caesar the martyr Cyprian was killed in a village named Arshaginnah (55). ‘Alitinūs Caesar was very cruel towards Christians and procured them many evils. His son (56) went out to war against the Persians, but they took him prisoner and brought him to Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians, who had him beheaded. When Ghallitinūs Caesar learned that Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians, had beheaded his son, he felt great pain and desisted from doing harm to the Christians. In the fifth year of his reign died Bahram, son of Bahram, king of the Persians (57). After him reigned Bahram, who is also the son of Bahram, called Shashan Shah (58), for four months and died. After him reigned his brother Narsi (59), son of Bahram, son of Sabur, son of Azdashir, son of Babak, son of Shashan. He reigned over the Persians for nine years and died. In the fourteenth year of his reign, i.e. the reign of Ghallitinūs Caesar, Hurmuz, son of Narsi (60), reigned over the Persians for seven years and five months and died.
January 26th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
Greek technical literature is largely neglected. Few can work with it, unless they have both excellent language skills, plus knowledge of the specialised jargon, plus some knowledge of the subject area – medicine, chemistry, or whatever.
But even someone who has all this may find themselves baffled. The following section from a paper in Ambix: the Journal of the Society for the Study of Alchemy and Early Chemistry – a bunch of people who are somewhat standoffish, to cap it all – came to hand this evening, and I thought that I would share it with you. The author is C.A. Browne.
2. Obscurities of Expression in Alchemistic Literature.
All the treatises of alchemy, beginning with the earliest writings and continuing down to the latest compositions of the eighteenth century, are characterized by the greatest obscurity of expression.
The Graeco-Egyptian shop-recipes for gold-making of the early Christian era are simple directions for counterfeiting the precious metais by making various alloys of lead, copper, tin, mercury and silver to which, in a state of fusion, were added varying amounts of cinnabar, red oxide of copper, pyrites, litharge, smelter-dust and other yellow-coloured or reddish metallic substances that were expected to give the alloy a colour resembling that of gold. These recipes vary in the nature of their combinations, and because of the lack of a definite nomenclature a difference of opinion early arose as to the nature of such expressions as Spanish tutty, Persian talc, Chian earth, Attic ochre, Italian stibium and the like.
In the course of time, because of unsuccessful efforts to duplicate the results of the early recipes, the opinion became prevalent that the old practitioners had intentionally made use of obscure expressions. In his treatise upon ‘The Four Substantial Bodies’, Zosimos, an alchemical Greek writer of the fourth century, remarked, ‘If these things were useful they accepted them in their treatments but referred to them by means of enigmas and for this reason they are a mystery’. By the time of Zosimos deliberate obscurity of expression was the fashion in alchemy; minerals, metals, and apparatus were frequently mentioned not by their actual names, but by a multitude of cryptic terms to which only a few of the initiated had the key. Zosimos, for example, describes mercury as ‘the silvery water; the masculine-feminine; the ever-fugitive; that which hastens unto its own; and the divine water’.
Again, in a Greek alchemical lexicon, mercury is variously mentioned as ‘seed of the dragon’, ‘bile of the dragon’, ‘dew’, ‘milk of a black cow’, ‘sandarach’, ‘Scythian water ‘, ‘water of silver’, ‘water of the moon’, ‘river water’, and ‘divine water’. Mercury, from its fluidity, was again called the ‘sea’ and ‘sea water’ (θαλάσσιον ὕδωρ), this being the origin of the Latin aqua maris, a later mediaeval designation for mercury.
According to Stephanos, who quotes the opinion of early writers, the old practitioners of the art employed enigmatic and obscure expressions because they wished to sharpen the wits of their pupils and to conceal the secrets of their art from the uninitiated. He repeatedly declares, ‘I shall make the enigmatic doctrines of my predecessors the subjects of clear inquiry’, and then proceeds in characteristic manner to make his subject still more unintelligible.
As a result of Christian ecclesiastical influences the ambiguities of alchemy were still further intensified. Chemical operations such as washing, dissolving, melting, digesting and distilling, which were clearly enough indicated in the old technical works, were referred to under such terms as baptism, mortification, death, burial and resurrection. As man was held to be a microcosm of the great universe, so each metal was held to be a microcosm of man. ‘Thus copper, the same as man, has both a soul and a spirit’, to quote again from Stephanos, ‘for these fusible and metallic bodies are so constituted that whenever they are calcined in contact with fire they are again spiritualized by the fire granting them a spirit’ (Ideler. 210, 11-14). The transmutation of copper into gold was to be accomplished by endowing the body of copper with a new soul and a new spirit.
With the spread of astrological conceptions, the influence of the heavenly bodies upon the transmutation of metals became an established principle in Greek alchemy and the literature upon the subject was overspread with another layer of obscurities. Gold was referred to as Helios, silver as Selene, mercury as Hermes, copper as Aphrodite, iron as Ares, tin as Zeus and lead as Kronos, and the astrological signs of these heavenly bodies were employed to designate the respective metals. But these and other signs were differently employed, the symbol [omitted] for Mercury being applied by some writers to tin and by others to quicksilver. To the latter substance as the counterpart of Silver the sign [omitted] of the old moon was employed by some writers, the opposite crescent [omitted] of the new moon being reserved for silver. Confusion of these and other similar signs caused differences of interpretation and many of the texts became in this way corrupt.
Thus it happened that by a gradual process of syncretism old shop recipes of the metal workers, Egyptian magic, Greek philosophy, Jewish gnosticism, Chaldean astrology, Christian theology and Pagan mythology were combined into a confused allegorical system of chemical philosophy to which was given the name of the ‘Sacred Art ‘. In order to give their vague mystical doctrines a semblance of authority the alchemical writers published various pseudographs under the names of Hermes Trismegistos, Moses, Demokritos and other celebrities of Egyptian, Jewish, Persian and Greek origin, and it is probably because of this practice that the name of the eminent philosopher Theophrastos was selected by the author of the alchemistic poems as one of his several noms de plume.
The final phase of the delight of the Greek alchemists in figurative expression was the complete subordination of the physical act of transmutation to its allegorical symbol,– the conversion of lead and copper into gold being held up as a picture of the regeneration and transformation of man’s own base nature into something nobler and higher. Hence came the moralities and religious exhortations which make up so large a part of the treatises of Stephanos and of his later imitators.
I seem to recall that one of the texts referencing the origins of soap referred to “divine water” a little while back. It was an alchemical text, of which I made very little. Now I know why!
January 24th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
The Baths of Titus have long been destroyed. They stood over part of the remains of Nero’s Golden House, itself filled with frescos.
A volume published in 1786 and now online, Ponce, Description des bains de Titus, here, contains a general view of the Baths, as they then stood, together with the entrance to the underground areas; plus two maps.
First the overview, including one of the massive exedras:
View of the remains of the Baths of Titus (Thermae Titi) and the entrance to the underground tooms. From Ponce, Description des bains de Titus, 1786.
Next, a map of the underground areas, indicating the foundations of the exedras.
Map of the underground areas under the Baths of Titus. Note the foundations of the semi-circular exedras at each end. From Ponce, Description des bains de Titus, 1786.
Finally a map of the overground area, with some elevations. I wonder, from the notes on it, how much of this was still standing in 1786, tho. I’m guessing this is merely a reconstruction from Piranesi, etc.
Ponce (1786). Map of the Baths of Titus, after Piranesi.
Update: Ste. Trombetti writes to say that in fact Ponce is a pixel-for-pixel reprint of Ludovico Mirri’s Vestigia delle terme di Tito e loro interne pitture, 1776, accessible at the Heidelberg Digital library here. (And, pleasingly, with a nice big “Download” button on it!)
January 24th, 2015 by Roger Pearse
Sometime correspondent “Inepti Graeculi” has been working away on some of the untranslated works of Chrysostom, and also some of the mass of literature attributed to him in transmission.
This sort of work is excellent. Voicu has estimated that there are around 1,500 texts which are spuriously attributed to Chrysostom. They are, of course, works which lost their original author, but were considered sufficiently interesting to be preserved; which means that they deserve attention now. These translations should do much to make that happen!
There’s a list of material recently translated by IG at the bottom; but coming soon also is…
Ps.Chrysostom’s In Parabolam Ficu (CPG 4588) – a popular work that argues against the notion that God rejected the Jews (versions found in Syriac, Ethiopic, translated five times into Arabic (!), also in a very important manuscript in Slavonic etc etc. Wrongly ascribed to Severian of Gabala in the Armenian tradition. Voicu assigns this to an anonymous Cappadocian. The amazing Sever Voicu’s short outline of Chrystostom in the Oriental tradition is quite eye-opening.
I have also nearly finished Chrysostom’s Non Esse Desperandum (CPG 4390) which I very much enjoyed
Here are the recent releases!
|In Jordanem Fluvuium
||Attributed to Severian of Gabala by Marx (1939) but this was rejected by Altendorf (1957). Calvin should have read this.
|De Cognitione Dei
||A short homily in which the speaker relates that Christ’s advent brought the knowledge of god (θεογνωσία). He then briefly addresses neophytes and invites the audience to pilgrimage to the Jordan. Possibly delivered at Bethlehem on the night before the celebration of Christ’s baptism
|Precatio in Obsessos
||One of several prayers published by Montfaucon (and reprinted by Migne) as a supplement to the Liturgy ascribed to John Chrysostom. Montfaucon sourced this text from Goar, Rituale Graecorum, Paris, 1647, p. 783. It was not included in Savile’s or Fronto’s Chrysostom edition. This little prayer is still found in the liturgical books of Eastern Orthodox churches.
|In Ingressum sanctorum jejuniorum
||On fasting and drunkenness. Ascribed to Proclus (Marx, Le Roy, De Aldama) or an anonymous sophistic rhetor (Musurillo)
|In sanctum Stephanum 2
||One of several homilies on the Protomartyr Stephen among the Ps.-Chrysostomica
|Encomium in sanctos martyres
||Text: Aubineau (1975)