December in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

At last, here we are at the point of greatest interest — December.  But we now have much more context for what we find.

Μὴν Δεκέμβριος. December
βʹ. Κύων ἑῷος δύνει. 2.  Sirius sets in the east.
γʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 3.  Arcturus sets : weather change.
δʹ. Σκορπίος ἐπιτέλλει ἅμα ἡλίῳ · ἐπισημασία. 4.  Scorpio rises at the same time as the sun : weather change.
ζʹ. Αἲξ ἑῴα δύνει. 7.  The Goat sets in the east.
θʹ. Ἀετὸς ἐπιτέλλει ἅμα ἡλιῳ · ἐπισημαίνει. 9.  The Eagle rises at the same time as the sun : it indicates weather change.
κʹ. Ταύρου κέρατα δύνει · ἐπισημαίνει. 20.  The horns of Taurus set : it indicates weather change.
καʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὄρνιθος ἑῷος ἀνατέλλει. 21.  The radiance of the Bird arises in the east.
κβʹ. τροπὴ χειμερινή. 22.  Winter solstice.
κγʹ. Προκύων ἑῷος δύνει. 23.  Procyon sets in the east.
κεʹ. Ἡλίου γενέθλιον · αὔξει φῶς. 25.  Birth of the sun : the light grows.
κϛʹ. Δελφις ἐπιτέλλει · ἐπισημαίνει ἐπὶ ἡμέρας ζʹ. 26.  The Dolphin rises : it indicates weather change over 7 days.
κηʹ. Κυων ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 28.  Sirius arises in the west.
λʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ἀετοῦ ἐπιτέλλει. 30.  The radiance of the Eagle rises.
λαʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῶν Διδύμων ἑῷος δύνει. 31.  The region against the head of the leading one of Gemini sets in the east.

And that’s our lot.

It’s easy to see why Franz Boll, who edited it, associated it with Egypt, since it references Egyptian sources, and includes mention of the Nile flood.

November in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Νοέμβριος. November
αʹ. ὁ κατὰ τὸ γόνυ τοῦ Τοξότου κρύπτεται. 1.  The portion below the knee of the Archer is absent from the sky.
γʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῶν Ὑάδων ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 3.  The radiance of the Hyades arises in the west.
εʹ. Ὑάδες δύνουσιν · ἐν ἡμέραις ἑπτὰ ἐπισημασία. 5.  The Hyades are setting : in seven days, weather change.
ϛʹ. Ὡρίων ἄρχεται δύνειν ἅμα Ὑάσι καὶ Πλειάσιν · ἐπι ἡμέρας ιεʹ ἐπισημασία. 6.  Orion begins to set, at the same time as the Hyades and Pleiades [1] : in 15 days, weather change.
ηʹ. Κάνωβος ἑῷος δύνει. 8.  Canopus sets in the east.
ιαʹ. Πλειάδων δύσις τελεία. 11.  Complete setting of the Pleiades.
ιβʹ. Ὑάδες ἀνατέλλουσιν · ἐπισημασία. 12.  The Hyades arise : weather change.
ιζʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Περσέως ἑῳος δύνει. 17.  The radiance of Perseus sets in the east.
κγʹ. ὁ μέσος τῆς ζώνης τοῦ Περσέως ἑῷος δύνει. 23.  The middle of the belt of Perseus sets in the east.
κεʹ. Κύων δύνει ἅμα ἡλίῳ · ἐπισημασία. 25.  Sirius sets at the same time as the sun :  weather change.
λʹ. ὁ ἐν τῷ ἑπομένῳ ὤμῳ τοῦ Ὠρίωνος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 30.  The following shoulder of Orion arises in the west.

1. I have been unable to understand the construction “Ὑάσι καὶ Πλειάσιν”.  The Hyades and Pleiades seem to be meant, but surely these words are verbs?  Is there some contraction here?

One problem I have faced throughout is ἀνατέλλει, which makes “it rise”. It appears in Matthew 5:45, τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς (His sun He does cause to rise on evil and good). But Antiochus equally uses ἐπιτέλλει, seemingly in much the same sense. So … why use both?

Possibly the answer is found here, in material from Hippocrates, Airs Waters Places, at Perseus, where a calendar from Aetios is given:

Spring began with the equinox, but was often popularly dated from the appearance of swallows and the acronychal rising of Arcturus in February. The heliacal rising of the Pleiades marked the beginning of summer, which ended with that of Arcturus, an event nearly coinciding with the autumnal equinox. Finally, winter began with the cosmic setting of the Pleiades.

A star is said to rise heliacally when it gets far enough in front of the sun to be visible before dawn. It sets cosmically when it gets so much further in advance as to be first seen setting in the west before dawn. The acronychal is the evening rising of a star, when it is visible all night, and contrasts with the heliacal, or morning, rising, when it soon disappears in the sun’s rays.

Ouch.  Here we’re getting into some astronomical jargon.  But in that calendar ἐπιτέλλει is used at least once for “heliacal rising.”  Interestingly it appears on the Antikythera mechanism.

October in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Ὀκτώβριος.

October

βʹ. Αἲξ ἑσπερία καὶ ὁ Στάχυς ἀνατέλλει. 2.  The Goat arises in the west, and Stachys.
εʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Στεφάνου ἀνατέλλει · ἐν ἡμέραις θʹ ἐπισημασία. 5.  The radiance of the Crown arises: weather change in 9 days.
ζʹ. Ταύρου οὐρὰ καὶ ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς βορείας χηλῆς τοῦ σκορπίου ἀνατέλλει. 7. The tail of Taurus and the radiance of the northern claw of Scorpio arise.
θʹ. Στέφανος τελείως ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 9.  The crown arises completely : weather change.
ιʹ. Πλειάδων δύσις καὶ Ἔριφοι ἀνατέλλουσι · ἐπισημασία. 10.  The setting of the Pleiades and the Kids [1] rise : weather change.
ιγʹ. Ταύρου οὐρὰ τελεία ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 13.  The tail of Taurus arises completely : weather change.
ιζʹ. ὁ ἐν τῶ ἑπομένῳ ὤμῳ τοῦ Ἡνιόχου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 17.  The following shoulder of Auriga arises in the west.
ιθʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ βορείου Ἰχθύος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 19.  The radiance of the northern Fish arises in the west.
κβʹ. Τὰ Νειλῷα · ἐπισημασία. 22.  The Nile flood [2] : weather change.
κηʹ. Λύρα ἀνατέλλει ἅμα ἡλίῳ καὶ ποιεῖ χειμῶνα καὶ φυλορροεῖν τὰ δένδρα. 28.  The Lyre arises at the same time as the sun, and causes winter and the trees to lose their leaves [3].
λαʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς βορείας χηλῆς τοῦ Σκορπίου ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 31.  The radiance of the northern claw of Scorpio arises : weather change.

1.  Ἔριφοι is the goat’s kids.
2. See Plutarch, On the mysteries of Isis and Osiris, 268:1. “the water of Nile’s superfluity” on which the note: “τὸ Νειλῷον ὕδωρ—τὰ Νειλῷα was the Feast of the Overflowing of the Nile.”
3.  Not sure what φυλορροεῖν means, but I presume “to lose leaves”.

September in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

The Chronography of 354 tells us of a Roman state festival on 25 December.  I saw a reference to the Calendar of Antiochus of Athens, quoted to support the idea that this festival was earlier than 354 AD.  After all, Antiochus must pre-date Porphyry, who refers to him.  So I’ve been translating the calendar.  But clearly this is not a calendar of state festivals, but of astronomical events.  Here is the section on September.

Μὴν Σεπτέμβριος.

September

αʹ. Ἰχθὺς νότιος ἐπιτέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 1.  The southern Fish rises : weather change.
εʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὄρνιθος ἑῷος δύνει. 5.  The radiance of the Bird sets in the east.
θʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος ἐπιτέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 9.  Arcturus rises : weather change.
ιαʹ. Αἲξ ἀνατέλλει. 11.  The Goat arises.
ιϛʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς νοτίας χηλῆς τοῦ Σκορπίου κρύπτεται. 16.  The radiance of the southern claw of Scorpio is absent from the sky.
ιθʹ. ὁ ἐν τῷ ἑπομένῳ ὤμῳ τοῦ Ἡνιόχου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 19.  The region of the following shoulder of Auriga [1] arises in the west.
κβʹ. Ἰχθύες δύνουσιν · ἐπισημασία. 22.  The Fishes have set : weather change.
κεʹ. ἰσημερία μετοπωρινή. 25.  Autumnal equinox.
κηʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος ἑῷος ἀνατέλλει. 28.  Arcturus arises in the east.

1. Auriga is the constellation of the “Charioteer”.

I’m using my QuickGreek tool to translate this stuff.  It does not recognise everything.  But I find that entering a phase into Google often takes me to a parallel Septuagint-English such as this, which elucidates some obscure words. 

August in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Αὔγουστος. August
αʹ. Λέων ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 1.  Leo arises : weather change.
βʹ. γαυρίαμα Κυνὸς σὺν εξάλματι Λέοντος. 2.  The exaltation of Sirius with the interval of Leo.
ζʹ. Ὑδροχόος μέσος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 7.  The middle of Aquarius sets : weather change.
ιαʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς καρδίας τοῦ Λέοντος ἀνατέλλει καὶ Λύρα δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 11.  The region next to the heart of Leo arises and the Lyre sets : weather change.
ιζʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς τοῦ Λέοντος κρύπτεται καὶ Δελφὶς δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 17.  The region near the tail of Leo is absent from the sky and the Dolphon sets : weather change.
καʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὑδροχόου ἐπιτέλλει. 21.  The radiance of Aquarius rises.
κγʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ νοτίου Ἰχθύος ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 23.  The radiance of the southern Fish arises in the west.
κηʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρας τοῦ Λέοντος ἐπιτέλλει. 28.  The region near the tail of Leo rises.
λʹ. Ἀνδρομέδα ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 30.  Andromeda arises : weather change.
λαʹ. ὁ Στάχυς κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 31. Stachys[1] is absent from the sky : weather change.

1. L&S.: “name of the chief star in the constellation Virgo, Spica Virginis, Arat. 97, Ptol. Alm. 7.5 : in pl., Man. 2.134 .”

July in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Ἰούλιος. July
βʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ κεφαλῆς τοῦ ἡγουμένου τῶν Διδύμων ἐπιτέλλει. 2. The region next to the head of the leading part of Gemini rises.
θʹ. Κηφεὺς ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 9.  Cepheus rises : weather change.
ιαʹ. Ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς καρδίας τοῦ Λέοντος κρύπτεται. 11. The region next to the heart of Leo is absent from the sky.
ιδʹ. Ὠρίων τελείως ἀνατέλλει ἅμα ἡλίῳ καὶ ποιεῖ ὕδατα καὶ ἀνέμους. 14. Orion rises completely at the same time as the sun, and causes rain and winds.
ιθʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ κατʹ Αἰγυπτίους. 19. Sirius rising according to the Egyptians.
καʹ. Ὑδροχόος δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 21.  Aquarius sets : weather change.
κεʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ ἐν τῷ δʹ κλίματι. 25.  Sirius rising in the 4th clima [1].
κζʹ. Ἡ Λύρα δύνει. 27.  The Lyre sets.
κθʹ. Κυνὸς ἐπιτολὴ ἐν τῶ ϛ̕ κλίματι. 29.  Sirius rising in the 6th clima.

1. There are seven astrological zones.

June in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Ἰούνιος. June
αʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῶν Ὑάδων ἐπιτέλλει καὶ Ἀετὸς ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 1.  The radiance of the Hyades rises and the Eagle arises : weather change.
ϛ̕. ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς<…> τῶν Διδύμων λαμπρὸς κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 6.  The region next to the head <…> the radiance of Gemini is absent from the sky : weather change.
ιγʹ. Ὠρίων ἄρχεται ἐπιτέλλων · καὶ ποιεῖ κλόνους καὶ ταραχὰς βροντῶν. 13. Orion begins rising : and makes thunderous shakings and disorders.
καʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ὑδροχόου κρύπτεταὶ. 21.  The radiance of Aquarius is absent from the sky.
κδʹ. τροπὴ θερινή. 24.  The summer solstice.
κεʹ. Ὠρίωνος Ζώνη ἐπιτέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 25.  The belt of Orion rises : weather change.

More on the “birth of the sun” at Chronicon blog

Tom Schmidt is still excerpting material from ancient sources on this mysterious “birth of the sun” on 25 Dec.  And he’s translating some untranslated material himself!  He’s got a bit from Hephaistio of Thebes on Antiochus of Athens.  Read it here.

May in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

Μὴν Μάϊος. May
αʹ. Ὑάδων ἐπιτολή · ἐπισημασία. 1.  The rising of the Hyades : weather change.
βʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς Λύρας ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει · ἐπισημασία. 2.  The radiance of the Lyre arises in the west : weather change.
δʹ. Αἲξ ἑσπερία δύνει · ἐπισημασία. 3.  The Goat sets in the west : weather change.
θʹ. Πλειάδες ἀνατέλλουσιν ἅμα ἡλίὤ ·  ἐπισημασία. 9.  The Pleiades rise at the same time as the sun : weather change.
ιαʹ. ὁ τοῦ ἡγουμένου ὤμου τοῦ Ὠρίωνος κρύπτεται. 11.  The leading shoulder of Orion is absent from the sky.
ιγʹ. ὁ Κύων κρύπτεται καὶ ὁ ἐν τῷ δεξιῷ βραχίονι τοῦ Κενταῦρου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει. 13.  Sirius is absent from the sky and rises in the right arm of the Centaur in the west.
ιζʹ. Ἀντάρης ἑῷος δύνει. 17.  Antares sets in the east.
ιηʹ. Αἲξ ἑσπερία ἀνατέλλει. 18.  The Goat arises in the west.
καʹ. Ἀρκτοῦρος ἑῷος δύνει ·  ἐπισημασία. 21.  Arcturus sets in the east :  weather change.
κγʹ. Ὑάδες καὶ Ἀετὸς ἀνατέλλουσιν · ἐπισημασία ἐν ἡμέραις ἑπτά. 23.  The Hyades and the Eagle arise : weather change in seven days time.
κεʹ. παχνίτου ἔκβασις. 25.  End of Pachnite.
κηʹ. Προκύων κρύπτεται καὶ ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Ἀετοῦ ἑσπερ́ριος ἀνατέλλει. 28.  Procyon is absent from the sky and the radiance of the Eagle arises in the west.
λαʹ. Πλειάδων ἐπιτολή. 31.  The rising of the Pleiades.

April in the calendar of Antiochus of Athens

The second century astrologer continues:

Μὴν Ἀπρίλλιος. April
αʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τῆς νοτίας χηλῆς τοῦ Σκορπίου ἑσπέριος ἀνατέλλει καὶ Πλειάδες κρύπτονται · ἐμισημασια. 1.  The radiance of the southern claw of Scorpio arises in the west, and  the Pleiades are absent from the sky.
εʹ. Πλειάδες τελείως κρύπτονται · ἐμισημασια. 5.  The pleiades are completely absent from the sky : weather change.
ιʹ. ὕψωμα ἡλίου. 10.  The lifting-high of the sun.[1]
ιδʹ. Κάνωβος κρύπτεται. 14.  Canopus is absent from the sky.
κʹ. ὁ λαμπρὸς τοῦ Περσέως δύνει. 20.  The radiance of Perseus sets.
κβʹ. ἀρχὴ παχνίτου. 22.  Beginning of Pachnite.[2]
κηʹ. ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ  ἡγουμένου ποδὸς τοῦ Ὠρίωνος καὶ ὁ μέσος τῆς Ζώνης κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 28.  From the leading foot to the middle of the belt of Orion is absent from the sky : weather change.
λʹ. Κύων κρύπτεται · ἐπισημασία. 30.  Sirius is absent from the sky : weather change.

1. Boll’s note indicates that the sun would be high in some constellation — in Aries, in this case.  He adds: “Since the equinox is given on 22nd March, the hupsoma takes place 20 days later, on the 10th April.  This addition is found in none of the other calendars.”
2. The word is found in no lexicon, so Boll tells us, but seems to be a month in some calendar, as it ends on the entry for 25 May, 33 days later.  Possibly it relates to Pharmuthi?