Via Twitter I learned today of the existence of a fresco in the church of San Martino ai Monti in Rome, which depicts the interior of Old St Peter’s. Here’s a somewhat muddy picture of it that I found on the web:
The following inset was on Google Image search, from a now vanished site:
Initially I was rather excited by this. But, alas, it is a reconstruction. Two articles by Ann B. Sutherland in 1964 make clear that the work was done by Filippo Gagliardi.
The payments to Filippo Gagliardi are simpler. Although the Filippo entertained in 1647 may not be Gagliardi, he must have been working in the church by December 1648, and had finished his fresco of the interior of Old St Peter’s by July of 1649.
Sutherland adds in footnote 131 that “There is a painting by Filippo Gagliardi, signed and dated 1640, of an Interior View of St Peter’s, in the Prado.” Clearly the artist had made a habit of this particular theme.
But Gagliardi never saw Old St Peter’s. Work to demolish it began in 1506, and much of the east end of the old church was quickly destroyed. The new basilica was itself fully complete in 1626 when Gagliardi was only 20. So his work is based on other depictions that he had seen.
Ann B. Sutherland, “The Decoration of San Martino ai Monti – I”, The Burlington Magazine vol. 106, No. 731 (Feb., 1964), pp. 58-67+69. JSTOR; Ann B. Sutherland, “The Decoration of San Martino ai Monti – I”, The Burlington Magazine 106, No. 732 (Mar., 1964), pp. 114-120. JSTOR. See p.115.↩
Again seen on twitter, a link to a wonderfully large image of the page in the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493) with a picture of Rome. It may be found here, but I reproduce it below because images vanish from the web like butterflies. The basilica of Old St Peter’s may easily be seen; but also the vanished pyramidal monument, the Meta Romuli, between St Peter’s and the Castel S. Angelo.
Click to enlarge.
UPDATE: A correspondent writes to say that the Nuremberg Chronicle 1497 (767 pages) is available at the following web sites:
Here’s another image of Old St Peter’s, part-way through the transformation into New St Peter’s. The main entrance, steps and square are all still present. From the Getty website:
Federico Zuccaro (Italian, about 1541 – 1609). 25.9 x 41.3 cm (10 3/16 x 16 1/4 in.)
Using red chalk in a highly detailed manner, Federico Zuccaro depicted Saint Peter’s Square in Rome as it appeared in 1603, with the Egyptian obelisk in place at the extreme left and the church dome complete. At the left, the archepiscopal palace adjoins the old facade of Saint Peter’s basilica. In the center, the three-story benediction loggia begun by Pope Pius II in 1462 adjoins the loggia painted by Raphael, lightly sketched at the extreme right. The bastion for the papal guard protects the front of the Vatican entrance, and statues of saints Peter and Paul from the 1400s adorn the foot of the staircase.
I’m rather impressed with the Getty site here. Who of us knew this even existed? (Click for larger image)
The digitisation of the Vatican manuscripts is a very good enterprise, but undertaken in a less than entirely satisfactory way. The manuscripts are uploaded – but there is no indication of contents beyond the shelfmark. Thankfully, and in the spirit of crowd-sourcing, J.-B.Piggin has been making notes on them as they appear, and publishing lists at macrotypography blog. In doing so, he is discovering treasures!
In his latest post, Memories of Old St Peter’s, he draws attention to This is a handwritten account of various monuments in the 4th century basilica of Old St Peter’s, before its demolition in the 16th century and replacement with the church we know today. The book was written by the Vatican archivist, Giacomo Grimaldi, and is also illustrated with drawings! (I do wish it could be downloaded as a PDF!!)
Ottavio Bucarelli tells me that there is an edition with notes of the work: G.Grimaldi, Descrizione della basilica antica di S. Pietro in Vaticano, a cura di R. Niggl, BAV, 1972. But of course this is offline and inaccessible. So the original is what we have to work with.
On f.152v-153r is an opening with a picture of the front aspect of the old basilica. These motley buildings led into the atrium in front of the church. Click on it to enlarge:
There are a number of drawings. Unfortunately the photographers didn’t try to mask the ink showing through from the other side. This is usually done by inserting a sheet of black paper behind the page. So it can make it hard to read.
Much of the material is the opening of the graves of various popes, including Leo I, and a drawing of his shrouded body in his grave (!)
Here is another double-page opening, f.104v-105r, of the interior of the basilica, showing where various monuments were:
There are also colour pictures of the decoration, much of it under Pope Formosus.
On fol. 133v-134r is a picture of the atrium, inside the front buildings, with the nave in front of us:
This is followed by an account of the atrium or “paradise”.
It’s delightful to think that this material is online! More!
In early 396 AD Paulinus of Nola wrote a letter of consolation to his friend Pammachius which contains an interesting passage on the entrance courtyard at the front of Old St Peter’s.
It is a pleasure even now to linger on the sight and the praise of such a great work. For we do not laud the works of a human being but the divine works accomplished through a human being. What a joyous spectacle did you [Pammachius], sacred producer, display for God and his holy angels from this—as the saying goes—rich provision of yours.
With what great pleasure did you exalt the apostle himself when you packed his whole basilica with dense crowds of needy people, where—under the height of its roof with ceiling panels in between—the spacious church lies wide open; and where, glittering from afar with the apostolic tomb, it binds the eyes and gladdens the hearts of those who enter.
Where, under the same massive roof, the church expands on both sides with double porticoes and where, with the church extended through a vestibule (vestibulum) in front, there is a bright atrium; where a cupola (tholus) topped with solid brass adorns and shades a cantharus, which belches forth streams of water serving our hands and faces.
Not without secret meaning does it surround the water spouts with four columns; such a decoration is proper for the entrance of the church in order that what is done inside by the mystery of salvation may be marked by the noteworthy work outside. For one single faith of the gospel also sustains the temple of our body with a fourfold support; and, since the grace by which we are reborn flows from it, and Christ, in whom we live, is revealed in it, surely a fountain of water springing to eternal life is born in that place for us on four columns of life; and it waters us within and boils in us, if only we should be able to say or deserve to feel that we have a burning heart on the road, which is kindled when Christ is walking with us. (Ep. 13:13)
That the basilica hall itself was filled by Pammachius with the needy, to whom he was giving charity, is itself interesting in 396 when, presumably, the sportula was still being distributed by the state.
The “cantharus” is some sort of fountain, and the 1575 image above shows the curious construction that stood there towards the end: a large canopy decorated with bronze peacocks, resting on eight porphyry columns, with the colossal bronze pine-cone inside it which spurted water from various apertures.
But this construction does not seem to be original. Paulinus refers above to four columns, not eight.
Our earliest literary source for the fountain in the atrium outside Old St Peter’s is the Liber Pontificalis, which records under Pope Symmachus (498-514) that:
He built the basilica of Saint Andrew, the apostle, near the basilica of the blessed Peter. [A list of gifts made to the shrines] Also he adorned with marbles the basilica of blessed Peter. The fountain of blessed Peter with the square portico around it he beautified with marble work and with lambs and crosses and palms of mosaic. Likewise he enclosed the whole atrium; and he widened the steps before the doors of the basilica of Saint Peter, the apostle, and he made other steps of wood on the right and on the left. Also he built palaces in the same place on the right and on the left. Also, below the steps into the atrium, outside in the square, he set another fountain and an accommodation for human necessity. And he built other steps for ascent into the church of blessed Andrew and set up a fountain.
The “basilica” of Andrew is in fact the converted circular 3rd century tomb that stood on the south side of St Peter’s until the 18th century.
But the key phrase is translated differently by van den Hoek (p.21):
Ad cantharum beati Petri cum quadriporticum  ex opere marmoribus ornavit et ex musivo agnos et cruces et palmas ornavit
He embellished the area around the cantharus of Saint Peter with a quadruple porch made out of marble and he adorned it with lambs and crosses and palms made of mosaic.
42. For cum + acc., see Blaise-Chirat, s.v. “cum”.
Whether we should interpret this as meaning that the fountain already had a square portico around it, which Symmachus decorated with marble, or that he created the portico, is unimportant for our purposes.
Even after this, there were more changes. The eight porphyry columns – which survive – did not arrive until Pope Stephen II (752-757 AD). A mysterious piece of evidence is quoted by van den Hoek from a source which unfortunately I have no present access to:
Renovavit in atrium ante fores beati Petri Apostoli qui quadriporticos dicitur, columnas marmoreas VIII, mirae pulchritudinis, sculptas, quae desuper quadris composuit et aereum desuper conlocavit tegumenum
In the atrium in front of the entrance (of the church) of the Blessed Apostle Peter, which is called the quadruple porch, he renovated [with] eight marble columns of amazing beauty, sculpted, which he placed over a square and he set up a bronze covering above
The reference for this is “Cited in R. Krautheimer, CBCR 5 (1977), 175″. The CBCR is the Corpus basilicarum christianarum Romae, a series of huge and hard-to-photocopy volumes of impeccable scholarship. (I see that some volumes are at the Hathi Trust here, if anyone would care to help me access this item).
Van den hoek suggests, probably rightly, that the bronze pine-cone was brought here and installed at this time. It was certainly present in the 12th century, when Petrus Mallius mentions it in his Descriptio basilicae Vaticanae, chapter 41, p.100 (written between 1159-1181):
IIII funes extenduntur in festa S. Petri et octava eius in atrio eiusdem ecclesiae id est in paradiso, in modum crucis et ligantur de porticalibus ad pineam aeneam, quae est in paradiso; et in unoquoque fune X candelae suspenduntur.
I don’t quite know how to translate all of that – funes is “ropes”, apparently – but I see that “… in the atrium of the same church, i.e. in the ‘paradis’, in the shape of a cross, and they are tied from the porticos to the bronze pinecone, which is in the paradise”. So the bronze pinecone was at Old St Peter’s by that time.
Where did it come from? Well, that must be a story for another time.
NOTE: There are extensive 16th century descriptions and diagrams collected by C. Huelsen in his “Cantharus von Alt-St. Peter”, which I linked to in my last post.
UPDATE: See the comments for a translation of the rest of the Liber on Stephen, and an explanation of what it all means, courtesy of a regular reader!
A. van den Hoek & John H. Herrmann Jr, “Paulinus of Nola, courtyards and canthari: a second look”, In: A. van den Hoek &c, Pottery, Pavements, and Paradise: Iconographic and Textual Studies on Late Antiquity, Brill (2013), p.45, fig. 13.↩
C. Huelsen, “Der Cantharus von Alt-St. -Peter und die antiken Pignen-Brunnen,”, Romische Mitteilungen 19 (1904), 88-102. Plate 5a. Online at Archive.org here.↩
Following my post yesterday, Ste Trombetti has found that the prints by Lafrerie / Lafrery are to be located in the Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (1593). Happily this is online in high resolution, and downloadable in PDF form, at the UB in Heidelberg here (and the page shows all the pix in thumbnail too – a very well organised site).
This means that, for the first time, we can get some decent resolution images of some of the monuments. Some of these we have seen before, in squinny little images defaced with bumptious watermarks, but here we have the full size images. (Click on the pictures below to get these).
First up on tafel 116 is the Seven Churches of Rome and the Old St Peter’s (1575). This is stylised, and the surroundings of each church are incorrect; but the depiction of the basilica itself is spot-on!
Note the steps, the atrium behind it – interesting that Raphael omits the section with three arches leading into it, as being a later addition – then the nave, with the hulk of the new basilica at the far end, and on the left the Vatican rotunda, the 3rd century tomb being used as the chapel of S. Andreas. To the right of the church, as today, is the papal palace.
Also included by Lafrery is the picture of Old St. Peter’s (1581-86) by Claudio Duchetti & Ambrogio Brambilla, tafel 115:
Note the pope in the Loggia, blessing the sea of people!
Next on plate 27 is the now vanished Septizonium, drawn by C. Duchetti & A. Brambilla:
Pretty marvellous! Our thanks to the UB in Heidelberg for making all this material accessible; and in a manner which means that we can actually study it, for once!
This evening I did a Google Images search for images of Old St Peter’s basilica in Rome. I’ve put some of these online before; but it’s always worth searching again, as new material appears all the time.
Note that you can click on these images to get a larger picture sometimes.
Via this site I learn of the existence of a map of Rome by Etienne du Perac (1577); curiously not from the text, but by inspecting the HTML source for the page! Here’s a detail of it, highlighting the fountain that stood in the atrium:
The same site also has a drawing of the fountain from somewhere, made anonymously ca. 1525. One would like to know where this clearly well-informed website got its information!
The huge brass pine-cone still stands in a courtyard in the Vatican, as those who have done the tour well know. I wonder whether the item has any connection with the cult of Cybele, for a Phrygianum once stood somewhere on the hill, as the 4th century regionary catalogues indicate, and a bunch of 4th century inscriptions from it were dug up near the piazza outside new St. Peter’s.
Next let’s have a drawing of the construction of new St Peter’s. The remains of the old nave stand to the left here, for this is a shot of the hulk of the new basilica from the north side. The author is Martin van Heemskerk, in 1536.
Now another drawing (caution – the site plays audio at you!), this time showing the construction from the west. The pointy tower on the front of the old basilica still stands, with some of the nave behind it. But to the right is a circular building; the chapel of San Andreas, or “Vatican Rotunda”, a 3rd century tomb converted into a chapel. And is the tip of the Vatican obelisk just visible beyond it?
Now here’s another overview shot. This, I learn from Anna Blennow – thank you! – is a detail from Antonio Lafreri’s image of the seven churches of Rome, 1575, here. The surroundings of the church are not accurate, but the general layout is. It shows the Vatican rotunda, just to the left side of the nave, with the atrium – and fountain – behind the raggedly front facade.
I also found online a picture of a model from the Vatican museums, although it was back-to-front on the site on which I found it! It shows the Vatican rotunda, with the obelisk before it (although not the surrounding houses); and also the other 3rd century tomb behind it, the chapel of S. Petronilla, in which the Empress Maria, the young wife of the Emperor Honorius, was buried. That tomb was demolished very early in the rebuilding, and the grave of the empress found and emptied.
However the most exciting pictures are some colour paintings that had previously passed unnoticed. The first is a painting of the burning of the Borgo, a district nearby, by none other than Raphael himself!
In the background is the tower, and to the left of it, the facade of the main church inside the atrium! This, as we shall see, was indeed painted yellow, with pictures on it. Ste Trombetti kindly drew my attention to this site, which zooms in yet further:
This shows the pope in the tower, and the church behind (not sure that all the elements are in their real and historical places here; but we don’t care, because we get these marvellous pictures). The image of the stonework in particular gives a sense of scale otherwise difficult to sense in many of the old pictures.
The next image, a fresco from the sacristy in the modern Vatican, from Art Resource gives us a sadly low-resolution image of the exterior of the old basilica, which lines up very nicely with Raphael’s depiction (a high res image can doubtless be purchased at that site).
Finally, also from Art Resource, is another image from the Vatican museum, this time with an unusual “head on” view of the outside of the basilica. It shows the coronation of Sixtus V in 1585 A larger image of this would be very welcome!
That’s it for now. Many thanks indeed to Ste Trombetti and Anna Blennow, who saw these images being posted on Twitter and contributed their better images!
Old maps of Rome can contain very useful information. At this site is the 1748 reproduction of the 1551 Bufalini map of Rome. The original is here, but for some strange reason is upside down and nearly unreadable. (Both sites have annoyingly provided us with a “viewer” rather than a download of the whole map).
Let’s look at one or two locations. The first is to look at St Peter’s:
The “Templum S. Petri” has the modern plan at the western end, but the Old Constantinian basilica at the East, leading into the atrium, then down some steps and into the “Forum S. Petri”. The Palace of the Pontiff faces into that piazza, which can be entered from the north through the wall that runs east to Castell S. Angelo. The same entrance in the wall into St. Peter’s square is used by modern visitors, coming from the metro station.
A circle at the bottom of the “new” portion indicates the location of the Vatican rotunda, a 3rd century tomb converted into a chapel and only demolished a couple of centuries later. To the right of it is a speck, which is the Vatican obelisk that now stands in St Peter’s square but then stood where it had stood for centuries, on the spina of the vanished Circus of Gaius and Nero.
There are various renaissance depictions of all these monuments online, and elsewhere on this site – click on the link for “Old St Peters” at the end of the post – but a map is invaluable.
Next let’s look at the area to the south of the Colosseum:
The Colosseum is next to the Palatine hill; but note the little shaded rectangle to the left of “Septizonium Severi” at lower centre. That is the location of the remains of the Septizonium, the monumental arcade-entrance to the Palatine, built as a facade by Septimus Severus and demolished only a few years later than the map. And to the left of the Colosseum is the dot marking the fountain, the Meta Sudans, which survived until Mussolini demolished it in the 1930’s.
Off to the right of the Colosseum, and beyond the church of S. Clemente, are the immense ruins of the Baths of Titus (Thermae Titi):
Let’s now wander off to the Quirinal Hill, up and left.
Somewhere in those streets is the modern Trevi Fountain. But in the centre is the now vanished remains of the Templum Solis Aureliani – Aurelian’s Temple of the Sun. Below it and to the right are the Baths of Constantine, the last major bath complex of imperial Rome.
I hope you have enjoyed your ramble around a vanished Rome.
In the modern basilica of St Peter’s in Rome, the high altar is at the west end. The same was true of the basilica built in the 4th century by Constantine.
By the south door of the basilica stood two large round buildings, which ran in a line west-east. The western-most of these was demolished as part of the construction of the new basilica, but the other stood until the 18th century, when it too was demolished. It is sometimes known as the Vatican rotunda.
To the east of them both, on the same line, stood the Vatican obelisk. This item from ancient Egypt now stands in the piazza before St Peter’s.
The following 19th century reconstruction, depicting a magnificence that the old basilica probably never possessed, indicates what was where:
Another image of the Vatican rotunda has reached me. This time it appears in a painting by Giorgio Vasari (d. 1574), “Pope Paul III Farnese directing the continuance of St Peter’s”, available here. A detail of this shows the new basilica under construction, the Vatican rotunda to the right, and the obelisk (surely in the wrong place?) beyond it.
The rotunda was clearly not a particularly attractive building. It looks as if it was a vast circular building, on top of which a structure with windows had been constructed.
One reason why the rotunda was so simple is that it was probably, originally, a massive, circular 3rd century Roman tomb. The land around it was raised by Constantine’s architects, in order to provide a platform for the basilica; and the obelisk ended up with its lower section underground.
The archaeology clearly indicates that a circular building was constructed on this site in the early 3rd century, in the Severan period. It is not quite clear whether the rotunda is the same building, or a replacement on the same site at a somewhat higher level.
The obelisk stood on the spina of the Circus of Gaius and Nero. The presence of tombs on the same site indicates that the circus had gone out of use in the same period, as the Vatican cemetery spread down the hill towards it.
The archaeology is not as clear as might be desired, because the site can only be excavated with small pit trenches. So there is much uncertainty in all this.